Lecture NotesLecture 10:
Syndromes associated with Prefrontal Lobe, Hippocampus, and Part of Parietal Lobe 1
•Posterior portion of the frontal lobe deals with the primary motor strip (initiating movements).
•More anterior to that, the associational cortex (prefrontal), deals with planning, socially
•For Alzheimer's Disease, starts with he Hippocampus, then it moves towards to the frontal lobe,
then prefrontal lobe.
History of prefrontal lobe
•Long time ago, Gall brought in the concept of phrenology (drew on the skull different areas that
were suppose to represent different functions)
•Gall thought that t he forehead (now prefrontal lobe) were responsible for intellectual functions.
•It became very widespread, so Jacobson decided to test this in monkeys in 1930.
•Jacobson took a group of monkeys and trained them to do intellectual activities, he then
performed frontal lobotomy (removing the prefrontal lobe). After, he found out that his monkeys
had lost the delayed response capabilities (they could not perfor m if there was a delay between
seeing a solution to a problem and given the chance to perform the s olution to solve the
•This was shown in WGTA and tool-usage.
•However, if the monkey was left in the dark or given a sedative, t he monkey could actually solve
•Thus Jacobson thought tha t the inability to perform the task after a delay is caused by some sort
of distraction of the surrounding. If the distraction is not present (in the dark), then the monkey
is able to solve the problem, it's not entirely due to memory.
•Jacobson also found t hat the monkeys had problems in alternation (if there were 2 possible
solutions, alternation means if one solution is wrong, then the other solution is right.)
•Moreover, Jacobson observed this one female monkey, where every time she gets something
wrong, she would get upset. Then eventually, it developed to the point that every time the
researcher tries to get her into the lab room, she would get upset as well. Thus her behavior
deteriorates over time. Then Jacobson removed her prefrontal lobe, she became completely calm
and nor mal. Moniz took this idea and perfor med it on psychiatric patients. His initial results
(20 patients) all survived. He stated that 7 of them had “recovered”. 7 of the had “improved”.
•Moniz continued to perform this until 1944, because he was shot by one f his frontal lobotomy
patients and that had fucked up his spinal cord.
•Freeman and Waltts continued operating it in North America on 3500 patients. In total, 40,000
operations were done in US alone. 18% developed seizures within a 10 years period.
•In the 1950s, frontal lobotomy eventually disappeared because anti-depressants came along.
Symptoms within Individuals after Frontal Lobotomy
•Did not effect IQ scores.
•Wisconson card sorting test: sort of like the alternation test in the monkeys, the patients will
sor t the cards in groups, and there would be different patterns. The researcher would switch
patterns and make the patients to sort the cards in another pattern. Frontal lobe lobotomy
patients were NOT able to make alternations.