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PSYB65H3 (525)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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Lecture 8: Brain and Behaviors
Depressants
Also known as sedative hypnotics.
By definition it means that it causes the cortex to go into a more relaxed state.
There are three major categorizes for depressants:
oThe barbiturates:
Can work in different ways. The primary way is through GABA.GABA
is the primary inhibitory amino acid transmitter. Barbiturates bind
together receptors. That is the primary mechanism of action. It lowers
brain excitability. Almost all of these are also synergistic with each
other. For drugs to be synergistic means that they have to work in very
similar mechanisms and that they can add to each other or they can
cancel each other out. By canceling each other out meaning canceling
out the withdrawal effects of each other. Synergistic means that they
are very similar in their mechanism of action. For example:
barbiturates and alcohol add other very quickly. And some people use
it to imply (more than adds it actually multiplies) the effect. Therefore
a lot of people die because they take barbiturates and alcohol together.
Because barbiturates are synergistic is becomes very lethal. Well most
of these will prevent the withdrawal effects of the other ones.
Whenever we put someone in the hospital for alcohol, we put them on
valium (is another depressant), so they can be behaviorally treated
first. However, taking a person off of alcohol cold turkey, would make
the brain go in hypertension, therefore increase the chances of getting
seizures. *Main point these are synergistic, meaning that they can
work to cancel the withdrawal affects of the two drugs or add to the
withdrawal effects of the two drugs. Barbiturates are prescribed
normally for sleep induction or to induce sleep. Typically they are used
most commonly in elderly individuals. Because as you go through
lifespan maturation, sleep wakeful cycles get disturbed in people as
they get older. Therefore they would have a lot of trouble sleeping.
Therefore, they tend to wake up a lot at night. And this is the most
common use for barbiturates, is to help the elderly sleep. So if there is
an abuse of this drug, its mostly done by elderly people. The problem
is that when people are barbiturates, people dont go through REM
sleep, sleep involving rapid eye movements as well as dreaming.
Barbiturates, they do induce sleep however they reduce the amount of
time in REM sleep. Often the person is still tired or not quite right,
www.notesolution.com
because if you dont get enough REM sleep there are some behavioral
conscious of that.
Withdrawal: the brain becomes hyper excitable, therefore there is
always a chance of death. If the addiction is high, people mostly likely
will go into seizures. If however, someone was on it for a little while
they will not go into seizures however they will become very
hyperactive. Alcohol will stop the withdrawal symptoms of
barbiturates.
oThe non barbiturates:
oAlcohol:
It causes more problems than any other drug. It is more problematic
than most other drugs put other.
It is a CNS depressant. And its made by yeast. Yeast digests sugar
and excretes alcohol.
Largest amount of admission to metal hospitals. It accounts of around
20 to 40% of the admissions. It also accounts for 55% of all arrests.
Whenever someone is arrested, alcohol accounts for 55% of these
arrests. It accounts for 50 to 75% of all homicides. 50% of all drivers
death is due to alcohol as well. 20 to 30% of all suicides, the person
had been drinking.
Interesting Experiment: the US passed a law, where people couldnt
manufacture or purchase alcohol. When went from January of 1920 to
December of 1933. The death rates for all the things that were caused
by alcohol did decrease for a little while, however it didnt last long. In
1930, all the number or statistic when right back up, where they were
right before prohibition, because people were drinking even if it wasnt
allowed. Because if humans wanted alcohol, therefore they found ways
to get it. So the problems when to where there were after ten years of
this prohibition, however they had addition problems. Because when
something is made legally, the government watches over it to protect
us. Everything is checked so the manufacturing of it is proper.
However, when it is made illegally the manufacturing of these things
are not being checked by the government. So people were actually
making alcohol, and the alcohol was not checked therefore, you dont
know what goes into it. Therefore the product was not inspected and
not pure. When people drink alcohol you are drinking ethyl alcohol.
What happened was if you shortcut these things, you can end up with
methyl alcohol. The problem with methyl alcohol is was the started to
creep its way into the alcohol chain. Methyl alcohol causes blindness.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 8: Brain and Behaviors Depressants Also known as sedative hypnotics. By definition it means that it causes the cortex to go into a more relaxed state. There are three major categorizes for depressants: o The barbiturates: Can work in different ways. The primary way is through GABA.GABA is the primary inhibitory amino acid transmitter. Barbiturates bind together receptors. That is the primary mechanism of action. It lowers brain excitability. Almost all of these are also synergistic with each other. For drugs to be synergistic means that they have to work in very similar mechanisms and that they can add to each other or they can cancel each other out. By canceling each other out meaning canceling out the withdrawal effects of each other. Synergistic means that they are very similar in their mechanism of action. For example: barbiturates and alcohol add other very quickly. And some people use it to imply (more than adds it actually multiplies) the effect. Therefore a lot of people die because they take barbiturates and alcohol together. Because barbiturates are synergistic is becomes very lethal. Well most of these will prevent the withdrawal effects of the other ones. Whenever we put someone in the hospital for alcohol, we put them on valium (is another depressant), so they can be behaviorally treated first. However, taking a person off of alcohol cold turkey, would make the brain go in hypertension, therefore increase the chances of getting seizures. *Main point these are synergistic, meaning that they can work to cancel the withdrawal affects of the two drugs or add to the withdrawal effects of the two drugs. Barbiturates are prescribed normally for sleep induction or to induce sleep. Typically they are used most commonly in elderly individuals. Because as you go through lifespan maturation, sleep wakeful cycles get disturbed in people as they get older. Therefore they would have a lot of trouble sleeping. Therefore, they tend to wake up a lot at night. And this is the most common use for barbiturates, is to help the elderly sleep. So if there is an abuse of this drug, its mostly done by elderly people. The problem is that when people are barbiturates, people dont go through REM sleep, sleep involving rapid eye movements as well as dreaming. Barbiturates, they do induce sleep however they reduce the amount of time in REM sleep. Often the person is still tired or not quite right, www.notesolution.com
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