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Lecture 5

PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Plantar Reflex, Spasticity, Thalamus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Lecture
5

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October 17th 2011
Sensory motor systems:
Frontal lobe primary motor function, in the division of the frontal lobe which is
primary motor. Precentral is motor, postcentral is sensory.
What happens when those areas get damaged? What happens when someone gets a
stroke there. Real world problems. Decoding and rencoding language is also
important.
Talk about visual system, the little homunculus, motor system adamge. Frontal lobe.
Parkinson’s disease.
Sensory and motor systems today.
Visual system:
Anatomical organization and functional organization. What kind of things could be
wrong with this person?
Eyes: retinas are right down the middle. Anatomically divided. Visual field. Is what
you see, what the person can see out there. Technically divided into right half field,
and left half field. Real world we shorten it, the right visual field and left visual field.
Your nervous system is divided in such a way so that your fields are divided into halfs
because your retinas are divided into two halves. Retina part closest to nose is the
nasal portion. Part of the retina that is closest to the nose. Other half of the retina
that is cloest to your head or temple, is the temporal portion.
The nerves come together from the eyes to a point to a single nerve, single point.
Separate nerves leaving the eyes are optic nerves. Optic chaism is where they
meet. Then they separate again, this point is called the optic tract. Nerve is outside,
tract is inside. Closest to eye is nerve, closest to brain is tract. The nasal portion
crosses, and the temporal portions stay on the same side. So the temporal portions
go to their respective cortexes, but the nasal portions will cross.
Pupils are very small, light can get into it, but the openings are very small. If you have
something on the left hand side and it gets through the hole. If you take your hand
and hold it off to the right, your nose will block partially. Right hand = nasal portion of
the right, temporal portion of the left. And vice versa. Something in your right visual
field, it’s gonna hit the nasal portion of your right eye, on the temporal portion of your
left eye. Will hit the left hand portion of each eye. Left field goes to right cortex, left
field goes to right cortex. Because the nsal portions will cross.

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Not retina, but visual field!!!
1. eyes can see more on the right than left, not perfect circles however. Can’t see
much like on the right, can see much further on the right.
2. destroy right nerves, cannot see anything there. Normal vision is completely gone
3. severing the optic chaism. Only the nasal portions, the tracts that cross. The nasal
portion of each retina. Bitemporal hemianopia. Right eye will not be able to see
something in the far right the left side cannot see out the far left. Blind in the nasal
portions of each eye, so the far left of the left, far right of the right.
4. temporal portion of the right eye. The left eye should be bperfect normal. The
temporal portion of the right eye sees from the left. So that section will be damaged.
Blind on left portion of right eye. Need to use diagrams
5.cut the right optic tract, the person will lose the temporal portion of the right eye,
lose the nasal portion of the left eye. Left eye cannot see from the left, right eye
cannot see from the left either as the temporal portion of the right eye has been
severed. Remember that the temporal sees from the opposite direcition
6. cuttingthe cortex and
7. macular staring, can see from a little dot. If you destroy something earlier on, you
can’t see anything, destroying it later you can still see. Macular sparing. Like number
5, you won`t be able to see out of the left sides of your eyes because the nasal
section of the left eye has been destroyed, as has the temporal portion of the right
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eye. Corpus collusm maybe?
So you can tell where the damage is by mapping. Tell where a tumor is through
waving things in patients eyes.
First part anatomy how the system is built, second part function.
What is the function of the nervous system at each of these levels?
The more central the neuron (cortex vs retina, associational cortex vs primary
cortex), the more advanced the area of the brian, the more complex the image is that
excites it. The more complex the images that excite it. In the retina, a neuron
responds to a spot of light falling on its receptive field. Light falls on the field or it
doesn’t. dark or light. Area 17, primary receptive area for the occipital lobe, there, the
neuron can decipher lines of light oriented in a specific direction, not simple but also
not complicated. In the associational cortex, they integrate information form neurons
and but information together. Neurons there are able to build up information that can
respond to faces or hands. Or specific faces or specifc hands. Much higher order. Like
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