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30 Oct 2010
PSYC18 t 4
What is culture?
- Idea gives rise to a certain recipe and we consume something we make that inspire new ideas
Psychological processes can be:
- Etics
o Universal t e.g. 6 basic emotions: happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, sadness
- Emics
o There are different objects that produce different emotions in different cultures
o Or there are same emotions that are brought by different antecedents
o Same emotions can be expressed more strongly in one culture to another (intensity)
o Differences in how cultures express emotion (expression)
Western attitude towards emotions
- There is an implicit benevolent attitude towards emotions
- Reminiscent of: Epicureanism, john locke
- Reminiscent of: german romanticism
Non-western attitudes towards emotion
- In western: thinking is more important than emotion
Universality and facial expressions
- 1. Ekman, Friesen &Tomkins
o Took photos from each country and asked to label emotions
o 6 basic emotions showed universality
o Problem: these were industrialized nations that have contact with western media
They probably become sensitive to western emotions
- 2. Ekman, Sorenson & Friesen
o Ask to match the same photos to different emotional-themed stories
o Participants from New Guinea were very accurate to matching photos
- 3. Photographed New Guinea expressions
o Also very reliable results from Americans
- Problem: photos were posed emotions
o May be different from real emotion
- 4. Ekman and Friesen
o But expressions change in different social conventions
Universality in emotion antecedents
- bousher
o Asked participants to describe scenarios that would produce one of the 6 basic
o Asked another group of Americans only to label emotions for each scenario
o Same sort of antecedent conditions in some cases bring about the same emotions
Psychological themes that elicit universal emotions
1. Accomplishing a goal t happy
2. Being prevented from accomplishing a goal (beyond control)t sad
3. Being kept from something you desire or want (goal is still possible)t anger
4. Being sickened or repulsed by something - disgust
5. Sensing danger caused by the unexpected - fear
6. Acknowledging something new or novel t surprise
- Pure expression
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o Visually impaired from birth still express these emotions
There must be something biological to these emotions
E.g. evolution
The way emotion is experienced
- Osgood, May & Miron
o Propose there are structural similarities in emotion
o Valence t positive or negative emotions
o Potency t weak or strong emotions
o Activity t feel activity or passivity (in control or no control) to stimuli
From etics to emics
- How do we morally value emotions?
- How do we experience them?
- How do we express them?
Why differences?
- Be critical
Scientific heritage of defining difference
- Taxonomy t how organisms are similar and different from each other
- Scientists were, at this time, trying to prove that humans are superior
- Mankind related to the white male, not women, children, or other races
- Shields: talked about construction of gender differences
o Male emotion was proposive, directive
o Women emotion was only sentiments
o Sexual dimorphism t difference between men and women
o At this time, to emphasize difference is to presumed to show more power
o Define power based on difference t the more difference, the more power
We have certain hypotheses
- If being more different than similar shows power, then its biased and not neutral
- What a person is is based on what people define them as
- But this is what statistics does t find if factors are significantly different
Factor analysis + Varimax rotation
- What factors cluster together?
- Each red dot represents a different characteristic
- The distance they are to each other determines how related or unrelated they are to each other
- Vertical line represents one group (e.g. one culture), and horizontal line represents another
- Unrotated t }}v[}µZZo]v}ÀÇ((}uZo]v
- Rotated t more dots touching or close to the 2 axis
- Maximize the between-group difference (variance) by eliminating similarities
Possible implications of cross-cultural emotion research
- Be careful not to discriminate cultures based on their emotions
- High culture t sophisticated
- E.g. Tolstoy novel more sophisticated than romance novels
- This is how emotions are valued between cultures
- There are different ways of valuing culture and we have to be careful not to
- Rhys chatham t tuxedo-wearing quintet playing punk music
What is the benefit of looking at differences?
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