PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Anthropomorphism, Iliad, Dynamical System
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PSYC18 – Lecture 1 Prof’s Speech - Purple
Slide 2 – Emotions in life…
- A bit of a patchwork quilt
- We experience emotions at different times and for different reasons
- We experience emotions in response to things around us
- Emotions in media
- Fear in films
o Terror vs. horror
o The viewer is the author of his/her own fear in terror movies
- Happy films
o Disney – portrayal of myth of living happily ever after
- Emotions are used in culture – i.e. advertising (i.e. McDonald’s)
o Are emotions cheapened when they are being used to sell products?
- Emotion and Logical Reasoning/How we Think
- Do emotions make us less logical?
- The right emotions give us the ability to make the right decisions; to be on the ball
Slide 15 – Evolutionary Perspectives
- Emotions are wired instincts that have adaptive values
- Darwin – compared his children to animals to communicate his ideas
Slide 16 – Sociocultural Perspectives
- Emotions are socially constructed
- The experiences we have lead us to feel emotions
- Emotions are dynamic
Slide 17 – Expression of Emotions
- What is acceptable/appropriate in one’s expression of emotions?
Slide 24 – A Short History of Emotions
- Different questions addressed by historians:
o 1. Has there always been emotions?
o 2. Has the nature of the phenomenon changed?
o 3. How do scholars try to explain emotions?
Slide 25 – #1 (always emotions?)
- Look at myths and old writings
- Are emotions described in old writings? Yes
o A. the epic of Gilgamesh
One of the earliest works of literature
Loneliness and grief are socially complex emotions which are present in the
o B. The Iliad
Emotions are not modern phenomena
Poem that portrays rage
o C. Confucius and Mencius
Displayed compassion in writings
o D. Greek mythology
The gods represent OR control emotions
Ares – God of War
Phena – protects others from harm
Dionysus – god of wine, all that is pleasant
Hera – embodies jealousy
Zeus – not emotional, contrasts other gods
Embodies control of emotions
Represents order and principle
- What religion to follow?
o Dependent on social class
o Olympian vs. Orphic mystery
Rich people – Olympian – follow model of emotions that says it’s okay to be
emotional because there is no afterlife, live in the moment
Poor people – orphic – there is an afterlife, do not waste time experiencing
positive emotions, work hard in this life (where they are poor) so that they can
get to their next life where they will be able to relax
- More generally with pre-scientific populations:
- 1. Ascribed emotions to the heart not the brain. Why?
o We are not able to feel the neurons in our brain, but we are able to feel our heart pumping
- 2. Tendency towards animism and anthropomorphism
o Animism: assumption that natural entities – animals, events in life, phenomena – have
soul/spirit/god attached to them that feels emotions
Events happen because emotions happen – i.e. gods are angry, so they storm
o Anthropomorphism: ascribing human qualities (emotions) to animals
Core way to understand the world
Emotional motives = continuous between humans and animals
Attachment – core basis for humans and animals
- Why animism?
We experience emotions at different times and for different reasons. We experience emotions in response to things around us. Fear in films: terror vs. horror, the viewer is the author of his/her own fear in terror movies. Happy films: disney portrayal of myth of living happily ever after. Emotions are used in culture i. e. advertising (i. e. The right emotions give us the ability to make the right decisions; to be on the ball. Emotions are wired instincts that have adaptive values. Darwin compared his children to animals to communicate his ideas. The experiences we have lead us to feel emotions. Slide 24 a short history of emotions. Different questions addressed by historians: 1. Has the nature of the phenomenon changed: 3. One of the earliest works of literature. Loneliness and grief are socially complex emotions which are present in the ancient writing: b. Poem that portrays rage: c. confucius and mencius. Displayed compassion in writings: d. greek mythology.