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Lecture 8

PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Syllogism, Logical Reasoning, Emotional Bias


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Lecture
8

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PSYC18 Lecture 8 Prof’s Speech - Purple
Slide 3 Does Emotion Help or Hinder Thought?
- A historical debate:
- Emotions… fail
- The following believe that emotions harm reasoning
o Plato: emotional experiences are distracting
Emotional experiences mislead you
How you feel distracts you from true knowledge
o Francis Bacon: Emotions can bias the scientist
Emotions bias scientific thinking
Emotions cause you to make errors
Make you misjudge irregularity
o British Enlightenment: emotions lead to inaccurate conclusions
Emotions put us in danger, lead to false conclusions
- Emotions… approved
- The following believe that emotions are powerful; they impact authenticity, thoughts are what
stint you
o Aristotle: Emotions give us something to think about
Emotions inform you about the self and the natural world
o Socrates: emotions facilitate moral judgement
Help you decide whether actions in the part are good or bad
o German Romanticism: emotions should guide development. Thoughts get in the way
Thoughts interfere with emotional inclination
It is better to go with the response made with emotion
Slide 5 Mainstream view: emotion hinders…
- Emotions impede logic and reasoning
- Don’t fall in love with ideas
- Logical reasoning is ideal, emotions don’t have a place in this system
- The heart is not good at critical thinking
Slide 6 Mainstream view: emotion helps
- Ambivalent attitude towards emotions
- Emotions are a complement
- Emotions provide useful information
- They can help you remember information that you store
- Emotion and cognition are both needed in design, marketing, management
- Needs elements of emotion in creativity to inspire
- Certain emotions help employees
- Certain emotions inspire
- As a manager create a stressful environment because it inspires employees with pressure
Slide 7 Two-pronged approach to advertising: emotions help get the message across
- 2 pronged marketing appeal to the customer with liberal message and appeal to emotions
Slide 8 When it’s a tough message, a cognitive challenge can motivate you to get past the negativity
- 2-pronged marketing: emotions can help make something unpleasant something the person is
willing to think about
Slide 9

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- Does emotion help or hinder thought?
- The conflict is embedded in everyday life
- Where does the controversy crop up in psychological research?
Slide 10
- One good example: logical reasoning research
- Is syllogistic reasoning helped or hindered by emotion?
- Basic Structure:
- 3 part structure
- All A are B
- No C are B
o Accept that A = B is accurate and C = B is not accurate
- Therefore, no C are A
o True or False? True
- In a structural argument, no emotions are evoked, it is a nonsemantic argument
- What if we add words to this structure?
o All A are B
o No C are B
o Therefore, no C are A
- Becomes:
o All cats are mammals
o No lizards are mammals
o Therefore, no lizards are cats
- NEUTRAL content added
o Semantic but not emotional
o Congruency: Underlying structure is valid and conclusion is plausible
- Conclusion is TRUE
- Conclusion is BELIEVABLE
Slide 13
- What about making the incongruity insulting?
- Incongruency: when the structure doesn’t match the content
- Content that you don’t believe that has emotional impact
o All intelligent individuals are educated
o No women are educated
o Therefore, no women are intelligent
- EMOTIONAL content added
- Conclusion is TRUE
- Conclusion is UNBELIEVABLE
Slide 14
- In the case of INCONGRUITY do we reason logically or pay attention to our emotions?
- All intelligent individuals are educated
- No women are educated
- Therefore, no women are intelligent
- 1. If we reason logically:
o attend to structure, not beliefs about content
o high accuracy
- 2. If we pay attention to emotions:
o attend to beliefs about content
o does this impede a focus on structure? Will we be poor at the task?
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o is this detrimental to accuracy?
o Consensus : emotions always hurt, but recently, views are that emotions help
o Rationalist vs. Anti-Rationalists
Slide 15
- Rationalists:
o Emotions hinder reasoning.
o If you pay attention to your emotions and beliefs you will make mistakes when solving
syllogisms
o Accuracy will be low
o Why?
- Anti-Rationalists:
o Emotions help reasoning in some cases they boost reasoning capacity
o If you pay attention to your emotions and beliefs they will boost reasoning capacity when
solving syllogisms
o Why?
o If you feel emotional, you will be more vigilant; more motivated to analyze structure
o When you disagree with a claim, you are more motivated to discredit it
Slide 16
- Anti-Rationalist Position Makes Sense
- “A good listener tries to understand what the other person is saying. In the end, he may disagree
sharply, but because he disagrees, he wants to know exactly what it is he is disagreeing with.”
- Lord, Lepper, and Ross (1979)
o Scientists encountering new study ask participants if it should be published
o if it fits their belief system
o if it does not fit their belief system…
o If the proposed article matches participant beliefs they are not critical because they
already agree
o If the study is novel, participant is extremely critical
o When self-doubt is induced, participants are pushed to engage in more elaborative
criticism
- Emotion breeds skepticism.
- Skepticism breeds elaborated cognitive analysis
Slide 17 Specific Conditions Allow Emotions to Facilitate Syllogistic Reasoning
- 1. Integral not incidental emotional content
o Emotions are integral they are needed, they lead the reasoned to being aided by the
experience
o Content that evokes emotions that resonate emotional experience are related to the life of
the reasoned at the time
o Need to present emotional content to people who are feeling emotional
o As soon as the reasoned is in a bad mood, if the content is neutral, syllogistic reasoning is
messed up
- 2. Explicit not implicit emotional themes
o Need emotions that are explicitly apprehended by the reasoned
o That can’t be experienced subconsciously
o Explicit emotions aid the reasoning process
o Implicit emotions hinder
- Evidence: Blanchette and colleagues’ (2007) study of Londoners.
o Participants: London, Manchester, & London (ON)
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