PSYC36H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Cognitive Load, Cognitive Restructuring, Psychoeducation

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22 Dec 2017
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Week 8 Lecture #6: Tuesday February 23, 2016
Rational and Cognitive Therapy
Overview
REBT
CT
CBT
- General and disorder-specific models
- Effectiveness
Exercise
- think of a time when you were very upset
- describe the situation
- what was going through your mind?
- how did you feel?
Albert Ellis’ Rational Emotive Therapy (1913-2007)
- One of the originators of cognitive revolutionary paradigm shift in psychotherapy
- Goal maximize peoples’ pleasure and minimize pain
o Utilitarian approach
Theory of Personality
- activating events lead to beliefs
- beliefs about these events leads to emotional consequences
- simplistic approach to how we think feel and act
Theory of Psychopathology
Explained by ABCs
Irrational Beliefs --> Emotional Consequences
NOT Activating events --> Emotional Consequences
- due to the fact that are thoughts are irrational or unlikely beliefs -> which leads to
emotional consequences
o (Absolute comparatives rigid and dogmatic beliefs, or self-disturbing
philosophies)
- it isn’t the events that cause the consequences, it is the mediator
- absolute imperatives
o Ought ought to get good marks in school
o Must masturbation theory
- rational beliefs where we must impose on ourselves these things that
hold us back or bring us down
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- e.g. 10 commandments of public transit -> by holding onto these
thoughts, she was irritated every time she was on transit, watching other
people disobey these “musts”
- if you learn to let go by this style of thinking, you wont be as
upset by these events
o Should
REBT’s Therapeutic Processes
Consciousness raising
- drawing attention to their irrational beliefs
Counterconditioning
replacing irrational thoughts with more rational thoughts
Contingency management
rearranged reinforcements in their life to support behaviour changes
Therapeutic Relationship
A precondition for effective treatment
Unconditional acceptance, but not liking
- don’t have to like them, just accept them the way that they are
Therapists evaluate client’s beliefs and behaviors
Confrontation
- alert them to the fact that they are engaging in these irrational beliefs
Video: Albert Ellis and Gloria Rational Emotive Therapy
- Activating Event = single, trying to meet men of a certain type
- Beliefs = believed she wasn’t good enough or inferior to them, just average
- the men is superior to her, and doesn’t have what it takes to attract them
- Consequence = Shyness
- acts like a dumb blonde, shows all her bad qualities
Effectiveness of REBT
Less often studied (vs. CT or CBT)
Existing studies are of lower quality
Reading Comprehension: Ellis (2003)
Why is there less support for REBT than CT?
- Not a degree granting institute, people who already have credentials can come and train
in REBT
o issues with the institute
- Hard to get grants and funding in order to run studies that are required
o necessary to get funding = REBT is expensive
- Tracking changes over therapy is difficult to measure and is expensive if you do it
properly
- Personal issues
o he’s foul mouthed, sigma around Ellis as he was formerly a sex therapist, a lot
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of overlap with other techniques like acceptance and commitment therapy,
complains that he doesn’t get credit for people who are claiming that they came up
with his ideas
Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy (1921-present)
- REBT and CT overlap a bit
- he was originally trained as a psychoanalyst
- developed cognitive therapy in a way that heavily focuses on empiricism
- can more readily be studied and is based on concrete events and behaviours
o but focused less on behaviour and more on thoughts that are connected to
emotional consequences
Theory of Psychopathology
Not irrational, Too absolute or broad
- underlying cognitions = tend to be not irrational, but can be realistic, tend to be more broad and
overgeneralized
o when we engage in these kinds of thoughts it leads to psychopathology
o varies with certain disorders
Automatic Thoughts
Automatic/involuntary
- and immediate responses to situations
Habitual
- kinds of thoughts that we engage in on a regular basis
Highly believable
- not irrational
Occurs in response to variety of triggers
- they aren’t necessarily problematic
o might engage in predictive thoughts about the future -> can be helpful, reduce
cognitive load
o when we engage in thoughts in a rigid way = can be problematic
Cognitive Distortions
-problematic thoughts
Also known as:
Thinking Errors/Traps
Depressogenic Assumptions
- think about exercise at the beginning of class
o identify your cognitive distortions
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Document Summary

Week 8 lecture #6: tuesday february 23, 2016. Think of a time when you were very upset. One of the originators of cognitive revolutionary paradigm shift in psychotherapy. Goal maximize peoples" pleasure and minimize pain. Beliefs about these events leads to emotional consequences. Simplistic approach to how we think feel and act. Explained by abcs: irrational beliefs --> emotional consequences, not activating events --> emotional consequences. Due to the fact that are thoughts are irrational or unlikely beliefs -> which leads to emotional consequences. It isn"t the events that cause the consequences, it is the mediator. Absolute imperatives: ought ought to get good marks in school, must masturbation theory, (absolute comparatives rigid and dogmatic beliefs, or self-disturbing philosophies) Rational beliefs where we must impose on ourselves these things that hold us back or bring us down: should. Don"t have to like them, just accept them the way that they are.

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