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PSYA02 mTuner 3.docx

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Kriste O' Neil

mTuner 3 – Chapters 13 and 14 1. Apositive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership is: Answer: prejudice 2. Agoraphobia, a specific phobia involving a fear of ___. Answer: venturing into public places 3. Apositive or negative behaviour toward another person based on their group membership is: Answer: discrimination 4. According to the textbook, if a person exhibits the tendency toward political conservatism, obedience to authority, and conformity, it can be said that this person has the trait of ____. Answer: authoritarianism. 5. What are the three prenatal stages? Answer: Zygote, Embryo, Fetus Explanation: A zygote is a fertilized egg, which contains trillions of cells, 23 chromosomes from the egg and 23 chromosomes from the sperm. The zygote implants itself on the uterine wall, after which the embryonic stage begins where cells begin to multiply and lasts from the second week until about the eighth week. The embryo then undergoes the fetal stage – a period that lasts from the ninth week until birth. 6. In regards to their social and emotional adjustment, what do we know about gifted children? Answer: They tend to be as well-adjusted as their peers. Hint: Research shows that any special social or emotional problems that gifted children may have stem from a lack of appropriate scholastic opportunities. 7. Informational influence occurs: Answer: when another person’s behaviour provides information about what is good or right. 8. The difference between passionate love and compassionate love is: Answer: passionate love is an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction, and compassionate love is an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner’s well-being. 9. Self-reports on the Big Five are associated with predictable patterns of behaviour and social outcomes. People identified as high in____ tend to choose to spend time with lots of other people and are more likely than introverts to look people in the eye. Answer: extraversion 10. What are syntactical rules? Answer: they indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences. 11. Family studies of OCD indicate greater concordance rates for ___ than for ____. Answer: identical twins, fraternal twins 12. To qualify as a mental disorder, thoughts, feelings, and emotions must be ___, ___ and ___. Answer: persistent, harmful to the person experiencing them, uncontrollable 13. The tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking is: Answer: mere exposure effect 14. The frustration-aggression hypothesis states that: Answer: animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated 15. Researchers have not determined the biological mechanisms that may contribute to OCD, but one hypothesis implicates heightened neural activity in the ___ of the brain. Answer: Caudate nucleus Explanation: One hypothesis implicates heightened neural activity in the caudate nucleus of the brain, a portion of the basal ganglia known to be involved in the initiation of intentional actions. Drugs that increase the activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain can inhibit the activity of the caudate nucleus and relieve some of the symptoms of OCD. 16. Suppose you were asked to choose between a 10% chance of gaining $500 and a 20% chance of gaining $2000 and you chose the second option. With which theory of decision-making would your behaviour be in accordance? Answer: Rational choice theory. Explanation: The rational person would choose the second alternative because the expected payoff is $400($2000 x 20%), whereas the first offers an expected gain of only $50 ($500 x 10%). 17. Groups sometimes do terrible things that none of their members would do alone, this is because of: Answer: Deindividuation and Diffusion of responsibility Explanation: One reason is deindividuation, which occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values.Asecond reason why we behave badly in groups is diffusion of responsibility, which occurs when individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way. 18. Repetitive, intrusive though
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