mTuner 3 – Chapters 13 and 14
1. Apositive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership is:
2. Agoraphobia, a specific phobia involving a fear of ___. Answer: venturing into public
3. Apositive or negative behaviour toward another person based on their group membership
is: Answer: discrimination
4. According to the textbook, if a person exhibits the tendency toward political
conservatism, obedience to authority, and conformity, it can be said that this person has
the trait of ____. Answer: authoritarianism.
5. What are the three prenatal stages? Answer: Zygote, Embryo, Fetus Explanation: A
zygote is a fertilized egg, which contains trillions of cells, 23 chromosomes from the
egg and 23 chromosomes from the sperm. The zygote implants itself on the uterine
wall, after which the embryonic stage begins where cells begin to multiply and lasts
from the second week until about the eighth week. The embryo then undergoes the
fetal stage – a period that lasts from the ninth week until birth.
6. In regards to their social and emotional adjustment, what do we know about gifted
children? Answer: They tend to be as well-adjusted as their peers. Hint: Research shows
that any special social or emotional problems that gifted children may have stem from a
lack of appropriate scholastic opportunities.
7. Informational influence occurs: Answer: when another person’s behaviour provides
information about what is good or right.
8. The difference between passionate love and compassionate love is: Answer: passionate
love is an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual
attraction, and compassionate love is an experience involving affection, trust, and
concern for a partner’s well-being.
9. Self-reports on the Big Five are associated with predictable patterns of behaviour and
social outcomes. People identified as high in____ tend to choose to spend time with lots
of other people and are more likely than introverts to look people in the eye. Answer:
10. What are syntactical rules? Answer: they indicate how words can be combined to form
phrases and sentences.
11. Family studies of OCD indicate greater concordance rates for ___ than for ____. Answer:
identical twins, fraternal twins 12. To qualify as a mental disorder, thoughts, feelings, and emotions must be ___, ___ and
___. Answer: persistent, harmful to the person experiencing them, uncontrollable
13. The tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking is: Answer:
mere exposure effect
14. The frustration-aggression hypothesis states that: Answer: animals aggress when and
only when their goals are frustrated
15. Researchers have not determined the biological mechanisms that may contribute to OCD,
but one hypothesis implicates heightened neural activity in the ___ of the brain. Answer:
Caudate nucleus Explanation: One hypothesis implicates heightened neural activity
in the caudate nucleus of the brain, a portion of the basal ganglia known to be
involved in the initiation of intentional actions. Drugs that increase the activity of
the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain can inhibit the activity of the caudate
nucleus and relieve some of the symptoms of OCD.
16. Suppose you were asked to choose between a 10% chance of gaining $500 and a 20%
chance of gaining $2000 and you chose the second option. With which theory of
decision-making would your behaviour be in accordance? Answer: Rational choice
theory. Explanation: The rational person would choose the second alternative
because the expected payoff is $400($2000 x 20%), whereas the first offers an
expected gain of only $50 ($500 x 10%).
17. Groups sometimes do terrible things that none of their members would do alone, this is
because of: Answer: Deindividuation and Diffusion of responsibility Explanation: One
reason is deindividuation, which occurs when immersion in a group causes people to
become less concerned with their personal values.Asecond reason why we behave
badly in groups is diffusion of responsibility, which occurs when individuals feel
diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others
who are acting the same way.
18. Repetitive, intrusive though