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Anna Nagy

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Chapter 11- Chapter Notes Single Case, Quasi Experimental and Developmental Research - Learning Objectives o Describe single case experimental designs and discuss reasons to use this design o Describe the five types of evaluations involved in program evaluation research Needs assessment Program assessment Process evaluation Outcome evaluation Efficiency assessment o Describe the one-group posttest-only design o Describe the one-group pretest-posttest design and the associated threats to internal validity that may occur: History Maturation Testing Instrumental decay Regression towards mean o Describe the nonequivalent control group design and nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design, and discuss the advantages of having a control group o Describe cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs, including advantages and disadvantages of each design o Define Cohort Effect Single Case Experimental designs - Single Case Experimental designs have traditionally being referred to as single-subject designs; but now the terms used are single case, and single participant - Single case design is often used in clinical, counseling, educational, and other applied settings - Was designed to see if an experimental manipulation could work on a single research participant - In single case design, the subject’s behavior is measured over time during a baseline control period o In Baseline control period, the participant’s control behavior is measured, once that is done, the manipulation variable is put forth in the experiment - Reversal Design is used to ensure if the manipulation of the independent variable had an effect o The reversal design takes like the following form: A (Baseline period) B (Treatment period) A (Baseline period) The ABA design is goes as: Control group, experimental, control • By observing the control behavior before manipulating and also after the manipulation, you will be able to understand if there was an effect Sometimes the ABA design is extended to ABAB design • This is done to address two problems with the ABA design o Single reversal is not extremely powerful evidence for the effectiveness of the treatment The observed behavior might have been due to a random fluctuation in the child’s behaviour For example a child’s upcoming birthday had an effect in the experiment This is less likely to occur if the treatment has been shown to have an effect two or more times o Ethics is the second problem Unlike the ABA design where the experiment ends with an withdrawal; the ABAB design ends with a treatment - Multiple Baseline Designs o The effectiveness of baseline design is only when a behavior changes after the manipulation is introduced o To demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment of such change, the behavior must be observed under multiple circumstances to rule out the possibility that other events were responsible o Variation of multiple baseline design Multiple baseline across subject is when behavior of several subjects is measured overtime • For each subject the manipulation is introduced at a different point in time • Introduction of the manipulation was followed by a change in behavior of each subject Multiple baseline across behaviours is when several different behaviours across a single subject are measured overtime • At different times, the same manipulation is applied to each of the behavior • A reward system applied to reading, grooming, and socialization behavior • By applying the reward system to each of the behavior at different times would show the effectiveness if the behavior is manipulated when being rewarded Multiple baseline across situation is when same behavior is measured at different settings like home or at work • Manipulation is applied at different times in each setting, expecting a change in behavior in each situation be occurring after the manipulation - Replication in Single Case Design o Procedures for use with a single subject can be replicated with other subjects, greatly enhancing the generalizability of the results o Grouping data from a number of subjects by using group mean can sometimes give misleading picture of individual response to the manipulation - Program evaluation o Program evaluations research programs that are proposed or implemented to achieve some positive effect on a group of individuals Can be programs within schools, work settings, or communities at large A good example can be Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) designed to reduce drug use, program is conducted by local police departments and has become extremely popular • These types of programs are studied on their effectiveness To see if the program was effective for its goal o Rossi’s five types of evaluations each attempting to answer a different question about the program Needs Assessment is the evaluation of need, as to whether there is a need for the issue to be addressed in a target population • If yes, need to develop questions like what causes the problem or elongate it After finding out the need of the problem, next step of addressing the problem can take shape, Program Theory Assessment • After communicating findings of various clients, researchers, service providers, find out if the way of addressing the program does in fact impact the target population in appropriate ways The third form of evaluation is Process Evaluation as it’s a form of program monitoring • When program is underway the monitor evaluates it and sees if it is reaching the target population, or attracting enough clients Outcome Evaluation, if the intended outcome, goal, of the program being realized? • Ways of assessing the outcome of the experiment Efficiency Assessment is once the program has been assessed for its intended effect, researcher must determine whether it is “worth it” - Quasi-experimental design allow us to examine the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable o causal assumptions are important within this design as quasi-experimental design lack important features of true experimental designs like random assignment of conditions o 6 quasi-experimental designs One-Group Posttest-Only Design • contains no control group or pretest-design (comparison group), has low internal validity • an example would be investigating whether sitting close to a stranger would cause him/her to move away, can be done by number of experiments and measuring the time the individual sat before moving away Independent Dependent Variable Variable Participants Sit Next to Measure Time until Stranger Stranger leaves One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design •
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