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PSYB10 Lecture 1 Summary

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (CHAPTER 1) Definition of social psychology - The scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are influenced by the real or imagined presence of others ABCs of social psychology - Affect  emotions, feelings, mood - Behaviour  verbal, nonverbal - Cognition  thought, sensation, perception, processing, memory History of social psychology - Wundt o Experimental psychology - Triplett o Social facilitation  Performance is affected by presence of others - Lewin o Dyadic interactionism - World War II o Government interest in social psychology to persuade using propaganda through the study of war bond ads - Cultural events o Kitty Genovese  Bystander apathy o Jonestown mass suicide  Destructive cult METHODOLOGY (CHAPTER 2) Experimental method (hypothetico-deductive method) - To determine causal relationships - By changing only one aspect of the situation, they can test whether this aspect is the cause of the behaviour in question - The method in which researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable 1. Examine past knowledge or research 2. Form a theory 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory - Independent variable (IV) o The variable that is changed or varied to see if it has an effect on the DV - Dependent variable (DV) o The variable that is measured to see if it is influenced by the IV - Internal validity o Keeping everything the same in different conditions except the IV o Making sure that only the IV can affect the DV o Accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions o Probability level (p-value)  A number that tells researchers how likely it is that the results occurred by chance and not because of the IV  p < 0.05 is considered significant that the results might be attributed to chance factors and not the IV - External validity o The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other real-life situations and other people in general o Generalizability across situations  Mundane realism  The extent to which an experiment is similar to real-life situations  Difficult to achieve realism in a laboratory setting  Psychological realism  The extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are to similar psychological processes that occur in everyday life  People don’t always know what they will do until it happens  Cannot depend on people’s predictions about what they would do in a hypothetical situation  Cover story  A description of the purpose of a study given to participants that is different from its true purpose o Used to maintain psychological realism o Generalizability across people  Ensure that participants are randomly selected  Expensive to select random samples  Assume that psychologically processes are universally shared o Replication  Repeating a study with different subject populations, in different settings or by using different methods o Meta analysis  A statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an IV is reliable Research designs - Correlational designs o Key features  Two or more DVs (no defined “predictor” and “outcome”)  No experimental manipulation  Random sampling o Statistical analysis  Correlation  Regression  Bayesian o Interpretation  Covariance  Prediction  No causation - Quasi-experimental designs o Key features  Defined IV “predictor” and DV “outcome”  IV is not manipulated  Stratified random sampling  Control group required o Experiment  Theory of mind  Kids don’t realize that each person has a separate brain and separate thoughts  Kids develop theory of mind around age 4  Age 3 group o Shown a bag of M&M with pencils inside o Says dad will think there are pencils inside  Age 5 group o Shown a bag of M&M with pencils inside o Says dad will think there are M&M inside o Statistical analysis  Correlation  Regression  ANOVA Bayesian o Interpretation  Covariance  Prediction  Differences  No causation - Experimental designs o Key features  IV is manipulated  Random assignment to condition  To minimize differences among participants as the cause of the results  The process whereby all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment  The differences in participants’ personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions  Control group required o Statistical analysis  Regression  ANOVA  Bayesian o Interpretation  IV causes DV Ethical issues in social psychology - Informed consent o Agreement to participate in an experiment o Fully aware of the nature of the experiment - Deception o Participants are mislead about the true purpose of a study - Debriefing o Post-experimental interview, especially but not limited to when deception is used o To explain the true purpose of the study and what exactly happened  Evidence that participants who had been deceived were more likely to agree with deception research than those who had not experienced deception o Attempt to alleviate any discomfort experienced  Evidence that people continue to believe the false feedback even after being told that it was fake o Serving as an educational function SOCIAL COGNITION (CHAPTER 3) Social cognition - How people think about themselves and the social world - How people select, interpret, remember, and use social information - Thinking about social objects Social objects - A physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition Automatic thinking - Thinking that is non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless - Automatic analysis of our environments based on our past experiences and knowledge of the world - Helps us understand new situations by relating them to our prior experiences through the use of schemas Cognition - Perception  Becoming aware of something through the senses o Pre-attentive processes  rapid processing of a complex scene  Ra
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