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Lecture 6

PSYB10 Lecture 6 Summary

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

EMOTION (CHAPTER 4) - What is an emotion? o A brief physiological and psychological response to an event or a stimulus  Felt subjectively  Prepares a person for action - What is not an emotion? o Due to their time-course, these things are not emotions  Moods (e.g., being in a good or bad mood)  A generalized affective state  A residue left over from emotions  An emotional experience that persists greater than just a few minutes  Do not have the following criteria for an emotion: o Stimulus response  Moods are not always a response to an obvious stimulus o Time period  Moods may persist over time (e.g., minutes, hours, days) o Action tendencies  Moods may not call for an action o Experience  Moods are mostly subjective, and not physiologically observable  Moods are like self-reports  Sentiments (e.g., wishing someone well)  Affective personality traits (e.g., “he is a cheerful person”)  Using an emotion word to describe people at a personality level  Level of arousal (e.g., sleepiness) - The 6 basic emotions o There is a predominance of negative emotions in the list because they make us most fit to survive o There may be greater functionality for negative emotions than positive emotions  Fear  Anger  Disgust  Sadness  Happiness  Surprise o Complex emotions  A blend of basic emotions  Affect blends  A facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion o Decoding is sometimes inaccurate  Positive emotions  Complex emotions that are positively-valenced o Gratitude (e.g., feeling appreciation for something that someone else has done) o Contentment (e.g., sense of satisfaction with current place in life) o Amusement o Desire (e.g., actively going towards a rewarding stimulus) o Love (contested as to whether or not it is an emotion)  Self-conscious emotions  Complex emotions elicited by the self o Pride (e.g., sense of satisfaction and happiness) o Shame (e.g., negative feeling within yourself in response to doing something bad; thinking about how bad you feel now; feeling that something is wrong with you)  Does not have to be based on action  Less likely to apologize  More likely to not fess up and admit that they did it o Guilt (e.g., focus on how you hurt the other person; behaviour is something you regret)  More likely to apologize  Predicts confessing for your crimes o Embarrassment (e.g., hurts your status) - Components of emotion o Time span of emotion  Emotions are short-lived  Real emotions are between 500 ms – 4 s  Fake emotions are between 1 – 10 s  No one holds an emotional experience for more than 10 s  An emotion can appear to persist if the emotional stimulus is presented repeatedly  E.g., why do we feel like we are angry for more than 4 s? o Inside your mind, remembering what made you angry is another stimulus o It is being rehearsed by the person thinking about the emotion-provoking stimulus over and over  Not all emotions have the same duration  Surprise is the briefest  Happiness, disgust, and sadness are standard length  Anger and fear last a little longer o Physiological component  Peripheral nervous system  An emotion has occurred if there is a peripheral physiological response o E.g., heart rate, skin conductance, pre-ejection period, finger temperature  Important caveat about inference: o Emotions cannot be identified by peripheral responses o Indicate degree of arousal or intensity  Central nervous system  What areas of the brain are involved in the processing of emotional stimuli?  The area of the brain is related to the processing of emotional stimuli o Limbic system  Amygdala = fear and anger  Hypothalamus = laughter o Frontal cortex (the most advanced part of the brain involved in pattern matching)  Everything else  Proper inference of psychophysiology  Physiological profiles and locations help us understand arousal, intensity and possible circuits o Across three different physiological responses o E.g., increased heart rate, decreased skin conductance, average breathing  Emotions cannot be identified by examining physiological states  James-Lange theory of emotion  Every emotion has a distinct and specific pattern of physiological responses o Physiological responses characterize and underlie emotions o Specific emotions are distinct and real  Implications: o Our psychological experience of emotion is the result of our physiological responses o Every emotion has a physiological signature  A pattern or profile of physiological responses that uniquely identifies the emotion  The specific bodily (physiological) response tells us what emotion we are feeling o Bodily response is specific  Event  Specific bodily response  Subjective emotion  Directed facial action task o Tell participants to pose face in certain ways o Does the pose face method yield systematic physiological responses?  Participants were able to identify emotions from instructions  Participants showed reliable physiological profiles for different pose faces o Supports the James-Lange theory of emotion  Relies primarily on physiological profiles o Cognitive component  Cognitive appraisals  The meaning of an event affects our emotional response to it o E.g., getting punched  He meant to do it and he meant it to hurt  Anger  He meant to do it, but he was joking around  Amusement  Key appraisals o Self-relevance o Goal congruence o Blame and responsibility o Certainty o Coping ability  Two-Factor theory of emotion  Physiological arousal is generalized and not specific o Specific emotions are an illusion of arousal  The arousal (the degree or intensity of response) is based on cognitive appraisal o The arousal is a trigger to make you search for an explanation for the arousal o The appraisal is needing an explanation for their arousal  The explanation given is purely cognitive  The cognitive appraisal provides an explanation for the arousal  Event  General arousal then Appraisal  Emotion  The arousal study o Give participants heart-rate increasing pill or placebo o Complete survey with very personal questions o An actor gets angry at the questionnaire o What does the person do?  Aroused participants expressed greater anger than the actor  Non-aroused participants didn’t get angry o Showed that the emotional experience only occurred when people were aroused and gi
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