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PSYB10 - 3.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10 LECTURE 3 – PERSON PERCEPTION & SOCIAL INTERACTION What goes into person perception?  behaviour, context, schemas  it is through your behaviour through which people know who you are and understand you Behavioural Input  verbal behaviour: talking and use of language  nonverbal behaviour: emblems, power of behavioural input (‘thin slices’) -subtle behaviours are that we do not do intentionally give an insight to better understanding us Emblems  link between verbal and nonverbal behaviour  gestures that have well understood meaning within a culture, they serve the purpose of words  effectively: nonverbal language  ie thumps-up, okay/good, peace signs  use of emblems and their meanings are very culturally bound Thin Slices  an approach within social psychology focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others  people can be surprisingly accurate at detecting other people’s personality traits and unobservable demographic attributes based on a brief interaction – not all traits can be accurately predicted  some of our traits are more outwardly expressive than others  ie – socioeconomic status SES is one such trait  Can you categorize a person into an ambiguous group from their face alone? -groups that we belong to, but we do not know that other belong to them unless we are told -show picture of face and say if the person is ‘gay’ or ‘not gay’ -population accuracy for ambiguous groups is 64% -thin slices pick up on intuitive signs to help us perceive certain attributes and traits SES in social interactions  groups showed a clip of two people interacting and the participants would try to guess the SES of the two people by their behaviour  results of the study showed that naive observers detected (objective SES) parents’ income, mothers’ education and subjective SES (measured using a ladder diagram)  relative to high SES participants, low SES participants spent less time grooming, doodling, manipulating objects during interactions  we use these cues mediate the understanding of future SES related behaviour Context  context matters  provides additional input  can completely change attribution Schema  what you expect is what you get 1 PSYB10 LECTURE 3 – PERSON PERCEPTION & SOCIAL INTERACTION Attribution  explanation for an observed behaviour of a social object  Attribution Theory -internal/external attributions -fundamental attribution error -co variation theory Ease of Attribution  an animation of shapes moving around a box and people asked what happened in the video  people responded in an anthromamorphic way, giving a social process (of a couple eloping)  we have a desire to attribute certain patterns to known schemas in an attempt to explain behaviour Automaticity of Attributions  How automatic is an attribution? – Very  attributions – pattern matching Attribution Theory  Do we attribute behaviour to something about the person (internal) or something about the situation (external)?  internal attribution: attributing a person’s behaviour to something intrinsic to that person -personality, disposition, attitude, character (something consistent about the person)  external attribution: attributing a person’s behaviour to something about the situation in which the behaviour occurred -specifically not changing beliefs regarding the person’s character or personality -make an explanation for your behaviour that is consistent in certain situations but not to the person Correspondence Bias  tendency to infer that a person’s behaviour corresponds to their disposition, personality or attitude  we make internal attribution of people’s behaviour more often than we do external attribution Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)  When perceiving others: tendency to overestimate the influence of internal causes for behaviour and underestimate external causes  When perceiving self: much more likely to attribute own behaviour to external causes  FAE Study -had people come into the lab and had them read essays, half read pro essay and half read con essay of the same topic -in addition, the participants were told that the author chose to write the essay position or they were assigned the essay position -how much does the author like the topic of the essay – results showed that although people were taking into account the assignment of the essay (external factor), participants assumed that there was some internal factors that effected the author’s position  Explanations for the FAE: perceptual salience, anchoring and adjustment heuristic 2 PSYB10 LECTURE 3 – PERSON PERCEPTION & SOCIAL INTERACTION Perceptual Salience  we have the FAE in part due to the perceived salience of a certain behaviour  what do you see when you are observing a behaviour that you are trying to explain and so for others we assume that their behaviours of others is internal, but we attribute more externally for our own behaviour  tendency to overestimate the causal role of information that grabs our attention  FAE occurs through the same process as the anchoring and adjustment heuristic 1. make an internal attribution 2. attempt to adjust away from internal attribution by considering situational constraints -but we do not adjust away enough to make accurate assumptions How fundamental is the FAE?  Gang Lu, recent physics PhD from U of Iowa  passed up for an award that he thought he deserved and so was angry  On 1991/11/01 he killed 4 faculty, 1 PhD student and paralysed a student researcher  Kai Ping Pong had the assumption that if his fiancé had not broken up with him then maybe Gang Lu might have not done what he did – however, his colleagues thought good think she broke up with him because he was always a murderer  analyzed English and Chinese newspapers from the local areas for articles about Gang Lu, and results showed that the English articles had a higher number of internal attributions compared to the Chinese articles describing the event Co Variation Theory  assumption: people are lay statisticians – 3 types of attributions internal, external, situational  3 factors of attribution: consensus, distinctiveness, consistency  Consensus: do other people behave in this way? behaviour unique to person  Distinctiveness: does this person behave like this with other stimuli? behaviour unique to situation  Consistency: does the person behave like this over time? behaviour unique to this moment in time  3 patterns lead to 3 attributions  when consistency is low, the attribution is situational saying that the behaviour was spontaneous due to the particular setting Self Serving Biases  self serving attributions  defensive attributions: unrealistic optimism, just world hypothesis  false consensus effect  ultimate attribution error 3 PSYB10 LECTURE 3 – PERSON PERCEPTION & SOCIAL INTERACTION Self Serving Attributions  You do really well on a test. Is it because... you are smart...the test was easy...  You do really poorly on a test. Is it because... you are dumb...the test was hard  positive outcome for Self: explain it in terms of internal factors  Negative out some fro Self: explain in terms of external factors Unrealistic Optimism  tendency to expect bad things are less likely to happen to you than to other people  good things are more likely to happen to you than other people Just World Hypothesis  belief that good things happen to good people and thing happen to bad people  gives us a sense of control over the world  leads to rejection and blaming of victims of negative events - if you reject a victim, then you don’t have to worry about also becoming a victim since it was an internal factor of that persons not yours that caused the negative event False Consensus Error  assumption that more people share your beliefs, attitudes, and preferences than actually do
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