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PSYB10 - 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

LECTURE 5 – GROUP PROCESSES Social Groups  groups have social norms to guide behaviour  groups have well-defined social roles  vary in level of group cohesiveness – based on this effects of group processes are weaker or stronger Social Norms  a group’s prescriptions for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of its members  eg- Berkley Naked Guy felt he should be allowed to walk around naked but his behaviour was a violation of how people should walk around and ultimately he was expelled from the university because he refused to put on clothes  groups members are expected to conform to these means – deviation leads to punishment, rejection or expulsion from group  members ho deviate from these norms are punished or rejected  can belong to multiple groups but it is the current groups whose norms matter most Social Roles  a groups expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members  kind of like subtype of social norms that apply to a specific people  potential costs: -individual personality may be taken over by power of role -behaviour not consistent with internal beliefs -violation of social roles meets with censure from other group members Zimbardo Prison Experiment  any situation with a power relationship there is a strong influence of how we perceive social roles and in turn limit how we behave accordingly  due to the roles in which people found themselves their behaviour changed drastically – different the internal self  however there is still some room to choose how you take on the social role with respect to your internal self  gets discussed in ethics because of the inclusion of power social roles in which multiple roles of the researcher in the experiment is not ethical because there is loss of judgement Group Cohesiveness  the degree to which a group IS or IS PERCEIVED TO BE close knit and similar  ie fraternity and sorority  in the minds of group members: cohesiveness promotes liking and in group favouritism  in the minds of outsiders: cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members Social Facilitation  effects of groups on individual performance  created by an interaction of three factors: -individual evaluation -arousal -task complexity 1 LECTURE 5 – GROUP PROCESSES  tendency or performance to be -improved when doing well-learned or dominant behaviours in the presence of others -inhibited when doing less practised or difficult tasks in the presence of others Social Loafing  tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a groups and not being individually evaluated  opposite of social facilitation – differentiation depends on whether you are being individually evaluated (singing solo vs singing in choir) Evaluation  evaluation apprehension: concern about being judged/evaluated -the more concerned you are about evaluation the more aroused you are during evaluation  socio-evaluative threat: extreme evaluation apprehension – visceral response -body responds with the stress hormone, cortisol -cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus inhibiting memory and learning Group Decision Making  group polarization  group think  jury decision making Group Polarization  tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members  can be a shift to either greater risks or greater caution  levels of social influence and conformity included  has both information (degree to which people agree with each other) and normative explanations (want to be a ‘good’ successful group) Group Think 2 LECTURE 5 – GROUP PROCESSES  ‘a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action -extreme form of group polarization  focused more on maintaining conformity and agreeability within the group rather than actually making a good decision Challenger Disaster  January 28 1986 11:39am  Christa McAuliffe, the first civilian to go into space  many children watched the life off in schools Rogers Commission  “a launch should be cancelled if there is any doub
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