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LECTURE 07-1.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture Seven PSYB10 Emotions and Morality Emotion - Emotionis brief, physiological and psychological response to anevent. Feltsubjectively and prepares a person for action. - 6 basic emotions o Fear o Anger o Disgust o Sadness o Happiness o Surprise - Complex emotions o Blends of basic emotions o Positive emotions  Gratitude  Contentment  Amusement  Desire  Love  Highlyrehearsed emotion or an attitude towards someone? o Self-conscious emotions elicited bythe self  Pride  Shame  Blame something external. Feel like actions were necessary on a forced situation  Guilt  People who are guilt-prone, do better with being workplace leaders, have better social relationships  Embarrassment - An emotion is a universal, functional reaction to anexternal stimulus event, temporarily integratingphysiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channelsto facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to acurrent situation. o Emotions are short-lived o real emotions – 500 ms – 4s if waiting more than 4seconds to show emotion to stimulus, they are faking the emotion or lying. o Fake emotions b/w 1-10 s o Emotioncanappear to persist if the emotionalstimulus is presented repeatedly o Not all emotions have the same duration:  Surprise is the briefest  Happiness, Disgust and sadness are standard length  Anger, fear are longer thanabove o These things are NOT emotions  Moods  Good or bad  They’re defuse …. Don’t know the stimulus  Time period is longer  May not call foran action  Subjective  Not observable physiologically  Sentiments  Wishing someone well  Affective personalitytraits  Use emotion words to describe someone’s personality  “He’s an angry person”  By itself, level of arousal o Physiology and emotion  PNS  Heart rate  Skinconductance  Pre-ejected period  Finger temperature  Indicate degree of arousalor intensity  Emotions cannot be identified byperipheral responses  CNS  Limbic system o Amygdala: fear/anger o Hypothalamus: laughter/amusement  Frontal Cortex  Proper inference  Physiologicalprofiles and locations help usunderstand arousal, intensity and possible circuits  Emotions cannot be identified byexamining physiological states - Theories of Emotion o James-Lange  Every emotion has a distinct, specific pattern of physiological responsesthat characterizes and underlies it  Implications  Implies that ourpsychological experience of emotionis the result of ourunderlying physiological responses  Implies every emotionhas aphysiologicalsignature – a pattern orprofile of physiological responses that uniquely identify it.  Specific bodily response tells uswhat emotionwe are feeling  Bodily response is specific  Experiment: Levenson andothers  Tell participants to pose face in a certainwaywithout amirror  Askwhat the facialexpression was  Were able to identify emotions from instructions  Had reliable physio profiles.Certainemotionalstates are goingto elicit some physio responses. o Cognitive appraisals  The meaning of anevent affects our emotional response to it  Same stimulus of event cangive different physio responses  Key appraisals for eliciting emotion  Self-relevance  Goalcongruence  Blame and responsibility  Certainty  Coping ability  Some kind of physiological response , not specific and then cognitivelycome in and appraise arousal  Two-FactorTheory of emotion  Schacter and Singer 1964 o Epiinjection experiment. Intextbook o James-Lange  Specific emotions are distinct and real  Emotions are an illusion of appraisal  If we didn’t have a word foran emotion, we wouldn’t have that emotion - Behaviour o Facial display  Everyone displays same thing when feeling an emotion  Facial action muscles  Frontals o surprise  Currogatorsupercilii o All negative emotions  Nasalis  Orbicularias oculi o Emotionas a whole o Realvs fake emotion  Masseter o smiles  Buccinators o smiles  Mentalis  Zygomaticus Major o All smiles  Depressor labii  Depressor angulisoris  Orbicularis orisrisoris o Smiles and sub-vocalization  Levatorlabii o Disgust  Duchene o Electricalstimulus on the face to create smiles with facial paralysis patients o Duchene
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