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PSYB10 - Lec 4 (near verbatim) - Attitudes & Persuasion; Conformity & Dissent.doc

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10: Lec 4: Attitudes & Persuasion; Conformity & Dissent Midterm1: Sat Oct 15, 1-2; doors open at 12:50PM SW319 Content: Lec 1-4, lecture content & readings associated 30 MC and 5 matching questions Skipping option: for any 2 questions you arent certain about, bubble in all answers wont count weighting re-distributed Practice Exam Questions/Topic Review Sheets/FAQs read Comparisons between certain topics Short Forms: Beh = behavior What are attitudes? -a like or dislike that influences our behavior towards someone/something -belief/idea that you hold for which youve ascribed some level of goodness or badness to: valence (positivity or negativity) of an attitude ABCs of Attitudes: Affective: Emotions you associate w/ attitude object/idea; How you feel about it Behavior: What youre likely to do as a response to your attitude Cognitive: What do you think about something? -2 characteristics of attitudes that matter in terms of how we think about them 1) valence: how good/bad you think something is; is a continuum 2) strength w/ which you hold them (ex: a person may have same level of valence about iphone = negative but the attitude is quite strong compared to another person) -can have similarly valenced attitudes w/ various strengths or vice versa -valence and strength are different dimensions; vary independently -explicit attitudes: attitudes you can state in words; you are fully aware you hold these attitudes and you can easily declare & describe them in words -stored in the form of a statement of which you are fully aware -implicit attitudes: simply an association you hold between some thing and the concept of good and bad -may or may not be aware of your implicit attitude; measure w/ rxn times -has to do w/ semantic network; words good (flowers, peace) and bad (war, famine) are concepts in semantic network -most ppl hold good implicit attitudes about flowers and bad implicit attitudes about famine LINK TO PROJECT IMPLICIT: implicit measurement tests online -originally assumed: what you believe about something is what is going to directly affect and predind your behavior towards that thing; 2 part: your behavior towards that thing changes your attitude/beliefs about it = more supported by lit -cognitive dissonance: idea that change in your behaviors changes your attitudes = revolutionary; fundamental aspect in attitude change & persuasion -dissonance: unpleasant feeling of arousal/anxiety that you get when your behavior is different from your attitudes/values -you experience unpleasant tension (dissonance) in body when: -you experience contradictory attitudes (ex: you love Justin Bieber, bf hates JB = conflict that would create internal tension; ALSO if you behave inconsistently w/ your attitude you hang out w/ ppl who hate JB, buy you love JB, but to fit in, you talk trash about JB inconsistent behavior w/ your attitudes have to reduce tension have few options) -key thing cognitive dissonance shows us you change attitude to match beh (few weeks later, find that you dont like JB as much) -phenomenon: how we act changes our behavior and how we have behave less rarely reflects how we feel/think -another option w/ cognitive dissonance: can reappraise situation so that beh no longer indicates anything about your attitude (much less common response) overjustification effect = if you can sufficiently justify your attitude-inconsistent behavior wont experience dissonance & wont change your attitudes (if no tension felt, then you dont need to change attitude to reduce tension) -cognitive dissonance study: -very boring task: turn wooden pegs for 45 min-debriefing, experimenter says need ppl to be motivated for the task (for future participants) and says one of 3 things: 1) give you $20 extra if you lie to other participant it was fun 2) key condition for cognitive dissonance: give $1 for lying to future participant about how much fun task was 3) control: thanks for participating, no beh thatll be incongruent because participant not asked to do anything -one week later, someone from lab (not connected w/ original study) calls up all participants and says they are curious about the quality of their experiments and how enjoyable the study they participated in was (measure of attitudes) -graph: ppl who were paid $1 to lie said a week later that the original task had been significantly enjoyable (these ppl had changed their attitudes to be congruent w/ the lie=beh they told) compared to controls who said a week later that the task was NOT enjoyable -when ppl got $20 to lie, it shows the reappraisal option where your behavior isnt totally inconsistent w/ your attitudes, then you dont have as much of a change in your attitudes as a result of your beh; $20 = big mon
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