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Lecture 3

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10H3 (Fall) 201 2 Lecture 3 (09/24/12) • Person Perception -Behaviour: Verbal, or talking/language, and Nonverbal, such as emblems and power of behavioural input: “Thin Slices” Emblems: Gestures that have well-understood meaning within a culture (OK-sign, Peace-sign, and etc). Writings or symbols on materials are not considered an emblem in the social psychological context Thin Slices: An approach within social psychology focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others. Look at the pdf for the experiment on SES & Ambiguous Social Group -Context: Provides additional inputs, and can completely change attribution -Schemas: What you expect is what you get • Attribution: Explanation for an observed behaviour of a social object • Attribution Theory: Watch the Heider & Simmel (1944) video -Automaticity of Attribution: It is very automatic, and attributions are pattern matching (matching patterns you observe with the schema in your head) -Internal Attribution: Attributing a person’s behaviour to something intrinsic to that person (personality, disposition, attitude, or character) -External Attribution: Attributing a person’s behaviour to something about the situation in which the behaviour occurred (Specifically NOT changing beliefs regarding person’s character or personality) -Correspondence Bias: Tendency to infer that a person’s behaviour corresponds to their disposition, personality, or attitude -Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE): Jones & Harris (1967) experiment in pdf Others: Tendency to overestimate the influence of internal causes for behaviour and underestimate external causes PSYB10H3 (Fall) 201 2 Self: Much more likely to attribute own behaviour to external causes Explanations for the FAE: Perceptual Salience (Salience of the information we are perceiving when we are observing a behaviour, or the tendency to overestimate the causal role of information that grabs our attention), and anchoring & adjustment heuristic (We make internal attribution, through correspondence bias, and attempt to adjust away from the internal attribution by considering situational constraints) How fundamental is the FAE in the pdf -Covariation Theory: Assume that people are lay statisticians and has 3 factors of attributions (Thought people did ANOVAs in their head) Consensus: Do other people behave in this way? (Behaviour unique to person) Distinctiveness: Does this person behave like this with other stimuli? (Behaviour unique to situation) Consistency: Does the person behave like this over time? (Behaviour unique to this moment in time) • Self-Serving Biases: -Self-Serving Attributions: Positive outcome for self: Explain it in terms of internal factors Negative outcome for self: Explain it in terms of external factors -Defensive Attributions: Unrealistic Optimism: Tendency to expect: Bad things are less likely to happen to you than to other people, and good things are more likely to happen to you than other people Just World Hypothesis: Belief that good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people (This gives us a sense of control over the world and leads to rejection and blaming of victims) It also gives us a feeling of comfort thinking that bad things won’t happen to us when we tell victims that it’s their fault PSYB10H3 (Fall) 201
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