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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

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Connie Boudens

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PSYB30 – Lecture 10 Purple Text – Prof’s Speech (From Lecture 9) Path Analysis - Data analysis technique that is commonly used in self-determination theory - Visually displays variable relationships; way of understanding a number of relationships between variables - Extension of multiple regression o Multiple regression – more than one predictive variable and more than one outcome variable - Always includes a visual display of different variables involved and relationships between them - Researcher tries to figure out which variables are related to which other variables and they sketch out a path diagram o Researcher sketches out what they think the relationship is going to be - To read: numbers are correlation coefficients (higher numbers, stronger pathways), see if data fits with model Causality Orientations - Relates to self-determination theory and that people have characteristic styles of orienting towards the environment - Individual differences in the ways that people self-regulate - Typical ways of self-regulating – people have stable causality orientation across a variety of contexts - With causality-oriented people – you can see what their relationship is to different things - 3 orientations o Autonomous orientation – person sees themselves as being more autonomous  Assesses how much the person is oriented towards affects of the environment that are intrinsically motivating  Self-starter, initiates activities, looks for feedback, interested in improving, takes responsibility for behaviour o Controlled orientation – person sees themselves as being controlled by external factors  Person’s behaviour is more controlled by rewards and deadlines, etc.  Somebody who has this orientation, is motivated by material things – wealth, power  More concerned with the ends, than with the means o Impersonal orientation – people doesn’t feel that the ends are not up to them; outcomes are out of their control  Person is amotivated – not really motivated to do anything, wants things to stay the way they are - Table 9.3 - Causality is measured using the general causality orientations scale LECTURE 10 The CognitiveApproach - Cognitive perspectives focus on the way that people think - Focus on differences in information processing, includes awareness and thinking - Cognition: o Awareness and thinking o Anything considered a mental act = cognitive o Specific mental acts: perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing, anticipating, etc. o Cognitive approach – interested in the way that people interpret events in the environment, how they perceive them, differences in memory processes, etc. - Three levels of cognition of interest to personality psychologists o Perception: process of imposing order on information received by our sense organs  Different ways that people make sense of the stimuli in their environment, what they notice, what they take in, what they construct from it  Subjective, whereas sensation is objective o Interpretation: process of making sense of, or explaining, events in the world  Involves more complex cognitive processes than perception, some conscious processes o Beliefs and desires: standards and goals people develop for evaluating themselves and others  Different ways people choose to pursue their goals o Some people include intelligence, if intelligence was going to fall somewhere, it would fall under the domain of cognition Personality Revealed through Perception - Field dependence-independence - Pain tolerance and sensation reducing-augmenting Field Dependence-Independence - Field independent (relative to field dependent) people can focus on details despite background information o People are able to look at the details when there is a lot of clutter in the background o Applies to a lot of sensory domains – i.e. being able to focus on specific sound when there is a lot of noise, also with picking out ideas - Testing field-dependence; 2 ways to test field dependence o Embedded figures test (EFT)  Requires you to find certain figures embedded in a larger figure  Faster you are finding all the items, the more field independent you are o Rod and frame test (RFT)  Uses an apparatus  Dark room, person faces apparatus, images with rod in middle, frame around  Use knob to adjust the rod so that it is straight vertically  Have to be able to ignore the frame, focus on the rod Field Dependence-Independence and Life Choices - Field dependence/independence has been matched with college major people choose - Education - Witkin et al. (1954) found that choice of major in college was related to field independence/dependence o Field independence: natural sciences, math, engineering o Field dependence: social sciences, education - Interpersonal Relations - Witkin found that field dependent people rely on social cues, are oriented toward other people o Because field dependent people have a hard time separating the object from the context, they take it all into account; more likely to take social environment into account, more oriented towards others - Field independent people function with more autonomy and are more detached o More detached socially, prefer to function with more autonomy o Operates with less attention paid to others, less adept at picking up on social cues Perceptual Style Leads to Different Styles of Learning - field dependence/independence can also play a role in style of learning - Study with Police officers o FI officers perform better in high-stimulation settings;  Notice details more accurately  Less distracted by noise and activity - Multimedia-based Computer Instruction – environments where lots of different types of media are being used (text, photo, etc.) o Field independents will function better in this environment because they are better at picking up the threads of information that go across different mediums – what do they have in common, links between them, etc., looking at specifics, not holithics o FI 8 graders learned more effectively than field dependent  Got points embedded within the different sources of media faster  Able to switch between educational media or sensory fields faster Field Independent Characteristics - Skilled at analyzing complex situations, exacting information from background distraction which helps them focus on the task - Able to screen out distracting information and focus on a task - Learn more effectively in hypermedia-based instructional environment - Lower on social skills because don’t have a good understanding of what the others in the environment need or are doing, over the course of time – won’t know what social cues to pick up on, what they mean, won’t know what is expected of you in different environments - Prefer to keep distance from others Field Dependent Characteristics - Stronger social skills - More attentive to context than field independent people Pain Tolerance and Sensation Reducing-Augmenting (Petrie) - Pain tolerance seems to be an individual difference; some people can stand a lot of pain and they don’t react to it, others may be filled with fear - Theory proposes that it doesn’t have to do with that person’s ability to deal with pain emotionally, but has to do with their nervous system - People with low pain tolerance have a nervous system that amplifies or augments the subjective impact sensory input o People with low pain tolerance – NS amplifies the sensory input; input feels subjectively more painful to that person o People with high pain tolerance – NS reduces effect of input o Refers specifically to physical pain - Those who can tolerate pain will h
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