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Lecture 4

lecture 4 Motor Development - new.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Motor Development I. Age norms for important motor milestones II. The development of reaching A. Underlying skills of visually-guided reaching 1. Perceptual abilities 2. Motor skill 3. Perceptual-motor coordination B. Reaching in neonates C. Normative sequence of reaching D. Reaching for a moving object E. Reaching with the hands and feet F. Is visually-guided reaching a myth? III.The development of locomotion A. Perceptual information in locomotion 1. Perceiving the properties of surfaces 2. Control of balance 3. Visually-guided locomotion B. Asystems approach to development of walking 1. Component skills 2. Relation between skills Age Norms For Important Motor Milestones Average age in months Skill 50% 90% Lifts head 90° 2.2 3.2 when lying on stomach Rolls over 2.8 4.7 Sits (propped up) 2.9 4.2 Sits (no support) 5.5 7.8 Stands holding on 5.8 10.0 Walks holding on 9.2 12.7 Stands alone 11.5 13.9 Walks well 12.1 14.3 Walks up steps 17.0 22.0 Kicks ball forward 20.0 24.0 intellectual or emotional development. Motor development continues youn on into adulthood. Necessary Skills for Visually-Guided Reaching -the ability to reach for and graphs objects in our visual field = visually guided reaching 1. Perceptual skills • Object recognition/perceive objects • Figure-ground separation - depth relationships 2. Motor skills • Arm and hand coordination • Fine-motor coordination and control 3. Visual-motor integration and coordination • Visual guidance of the hand in proper direction • Timing of the grasp • Perspective control when reaching for objects that are moving, need to predict where it’s going to be and then grasp. The Normative Sequence of Reaching 1 – 2 Months • Glance at objects when present • Begin to fixate objects for 5-10 sec • Show hand movement but arms not organized with vision • Grasping reflex but again isolated from vision 2 – 3 Months • Isolation of components breaks down • Focus on objects • Beginning of prehensory behavior- infants are now starting to move their arm and in the right direction of object. • Raise hand towards object- calibrating, comparing hand with object • Can hit object but not grasp it yet. • Movements beginnin
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