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Lecture 6


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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20- lec 6 Cognitive developement Vygotsky approach Sociocultural theory proposed by vygotsky -for piaget the child was an isolated little scientist who was trying to figure out the nautre of the world by constructing his own reality -sociocultural emphasize that children live in an extremely rich social environment that reflects the childs development -joining society allows child to think in ways that have meaning -2 critical roles: 1.more knowledgeable other: refers to anyone who has a higher ability level of the learner of proximal development: the distance between a child’s ability to perform a task with help, and a childs ability to perform that task independently=the difference -mold cognition in adaptive ways -particular important achievement is the rapid development of language -it enables children to participate in social dialogues with other people, and specifically with the knowledgeable others allowing them to learn -language allows childnre to communicate with themselves which enhances their ability to control their behavior Sociocultural theory -private speech: watch preschoolers exploring then environment, and they will talk to themselves, they will narrate to themselves what is going on (piaget noticed it too: egocentric speech, it was another example of how children were unable to take a perspective of another person) -talk to himself allows the child to express their understanding of the world, enables them to get a deeper understanding of what is going on -they are challenging themselves and increasing their understanding of the world -vygotsky disagreed with piagets egocentric speech -vy said language helps children think about mental activity helps them behave, it laid the foundation for self guidance -vy private speech disappeared because children found tasks as being easier and it became internalized as an inner speech -children who use private speech when they are performing challenging tasks they are more attentive to the task and therefore achieve better at the task -social origins of cognition: to promote cognitive development need 2 particular features 1. intersubjectivity:2 participants who begin a task with different understanding ultimately arrive at a shared understanding, get to a common ground, and provides for a means of communication between the 2 individuals. Each person understands and adjusts to others perspective -adults translate their own insights into ways that the child will -preschoolers can seek out other peoples help that may be beneficial -they try and promote intersubjectivity 2. scaffolding: adjusting the support one gives in teaching to support the child to fit current life. As the child increases in dev, scaffolding decreases, and turns that responsibility over to the child -they child uses and makes it their own -it captures a form of teaching interaction that would be very relevant in an educational environment, academic environment (puzzles..) -guided participation: refers to shared endeavors between more or less experts -there is the same type of dialogue and support, it’s the standard notion of scaffold. -Those whos parents used scaffolding and they used private speech were more advanced in cognition -adult cognitive support, helping them, scaffolding principles, could actually predict childrens mature thinking. -adult emotional support, predicts positive development in children -planning and problem solving higher with more experienced peers, there are special advantages -peer disagreements are good contexts for better cognitive development Vygotsky and early childhood education -they both talk about active participation assited discovering: teachers guide dev with prompts, illustrations, they tailor experiences, make situation just right to maximize development -children can work with other children or groups with varying abilities and they can help each other in problem solving -make believe play children create imaginging situations were they learn to follow social roles instead of their immediate impulses -ex: pretend bed time, they follow the rules of it -vy make belief play is unique in this sense, it defines zone of proximaldev were children can try out wide contexts and dev new -it is also one of the riches contexts for private speech, they learned to do things in a plan way -more make believe play take on more responsibility and control emotions in a classroom Evaluation of vy theory -social experience has convinved us of importance of social dev -direct teaching -very interesting cultural variation in cultural dev v-verbal communication is not the only means through which cognitions develops, it actually plays a minor role and vy emphasizes too much on it -when western parents scaffold, they assume a great deal of resp for providing the child with acquirement of skills -the parents takes credit formore than what they have done western cultures -child is responsible for motivation and learning of skills, that’s in the eastern cultures -relatively little of percetual motor problem solving skills contribute to higher problem solving processes -we don’t know how the changes in memory and perception are drived in social interactions -piaget paid more attention to cognitive processes The information processing approach -came about because of inaccuracy of piaget -its an approach of scientists that are studying different processes -its not a dev theory, it’s a theory of general cognitive processes The mind as a computer -human mind is a complex manipulating machine, what comp do 1. encoding: info is taken in and store in a symbolic representation format 2 recoding: opereates on the info, we revise its symbolic structure, we change it 3. decoding: decipher its meaning, comparing new info, to previously stored 4. output: some type of response, usually behavioral, could be solving a problem,a movement -similar in terms of its view of the child, they view the child as an active interpreter of info -its diff it offers precision of the cognitive processes -it articulates cognitive operation that is done when performing a task Behaviorists foundations: reversal and non reversal learning -learning produced difficult results to understand -study: reversal non reversal-learning experiment -children and daults were given a set of stimuli,and make a response to one of them -big means make a response, little means don’t- case of discrimination associate big with response little with don’t -second discrimination reversal they reversed the size of assication. Lil yes big no and then the non reversal shift, they said red is yes green equals no. The reversal shift should be more diff to learn, because yo have to break a previously known association and instanstiate a new one -get rid of old make anew -In non reversal you just have to make a new one -children over 6 years reversal was eaier, under 6 years worked the non reversal was easier -older children and adults were learning a strategy makes the reversal much simpler -there was more going on that what we could account for there was different cognitive processes that we used It was important to start studying cognitive events -chompsky how were children able to learn language, from a behaviorist point of view, they learn it by being reinforced -chompsky pointed out problems no one could ever produced a sentence they had never heard before, because they could of never been reinforced, so clearly there is more going on Store model (Atkinson and shiffrin) -comp sci model -understand the info the same way info moves through a computer -info enters system via particular type of storaging-storage unit units: sensory memory, short term and long term 2. control process: move info through the system to different storage areas, they are like the software of computer -process info moves in through a number of stages -itll go in sensory storage, represented literally, ex: visual storage spoke as a visual image, remains for a few secs then goes away, if we attend to it we can make the image persist -sensory store is operated on by many processes then moved into short term memory (working memory) -this is where we actively apply strategies to the information, to try an understand it more, like rehersal -the capacity of short term memory is limited, only a certain amount that will remain there so if we meaningfully connect info, we can make it more efficient, so we can bring in more info -to manage these complex activities, there is a special part of short term memory, it’s a central executive that decides what we attend to and how we coordinate info, the strategies we use to connect. It is conscious -the more we operate on the info, the longer we hold in in working and the more likely we will transfer it to long term memory -it represents our permanent knowledge b
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