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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20-lec 2 Theories of child development learning theory -psychology needs to be concerned with detectably observable events -behaviorism -watsons goal was to create a truly objective science psychology -he was inspired by Pavlovs psychology of classical conditioning -classical conditioning underlined the behavior of the child -child behavior could be molded by response associations -also skinner’s operant behavior. The frequency of behavior could be increased by associating it with various outcomes (reinforcers) -could decrease a behavior by the outcome as well (punishment) -social learning theories have emerged- produced by albert bandura -critical notion of learning was that children could learn simply by observing other situations -he spoke about modeling, you watch someone doing a certain behavior and you do that behavior. Ex: baby clapping his hands sees mom clapping his hands -sociocognitive theory: revised theory, children are selective in what they imitate. -they develop personal standards for behavior, ones characteristics are gonna influence them to succeed -efficacy of learning theories have had a major impact on aspects of development -through various practices such as behavior modification -effective with dealing with mental problems such as anger, language, common day things as well such as smoking -plays down the importance of biological factors, they don’t play that big of a role in learning theories -learning theories actually include a narrow view of the environment-environment are like immediate reinforcements -underestimated the children’s contribution to development -theories don’t give children a whole lot of say in their development process Theories of child development –cognitive theories -jean piaget was the main man of cognitive developmental theory -he was concerned of thinking reasoning and intelligence -he didn’t believe that development was due to reinforcement -he viewed children as explorers that responded to their environment they were constructive -both biological factors and experience influenced their dev -the children constructed their own world -this all depended on the level of cognitive ability the child had -children went through stages to determine how they determined the world and solved problem (discontinuous stage theory) -understanding psychologists turned to cognition -information processing theory: information is essentially brought into the system into the individual through senses (input) and things are done to it until it is output -IPpsychologists use flow charts and computer methodology -talk about individual processes, such as perception memory…. How do these process change as a function of age -strength of info processing can talk about different steps children go through when understanding information -informtation processing falls shorts, they analyze specifics but don’t put it back together and analyze it all together -developmental cognitive neuroscience: brings together diff sciences to bring forth changes in the brain due to children cognitive uses -measures brain activity as children are performing cognitive task, how is the brain involved -how is the brain related to changes in cognition -various methods you can asses the nature of the change of the brain in relation with the cognitive uses of a child. All done by brain analyzation. -the brain remains plastic throughout one’s life span Theories of child development-ethological and evolutionary theory -ethology is concerned with the adaptive and survival aspects of dev -timbergen and Lorenz, watched animal species in natural habitat and many of the behaviors of the species had disctinct survival value -they produced behavior that allowed for survival -imprinting: ensures survival, stay near parents -critical period: set time period where the imprinting occurs -there is a period within the organisms body where they are required to obtain adaptive behaviors -if its not within that time they wont produce the behaviors -for human infants critical period its more sensitive period that there is a time that is biological optimal for certain -optimal development occurs during sensitive period, can occur later but its better during the sensitive period ex: language, children learn language better during the sensitive period -the human infant has a set of behaviors that promote its survival, such as crying smiling, trying to engage moms attention, they encourage care giving to keep mom near by -emotion is critical in human behavior –duh -evolutionary dev psychology: understand the adaptive value of species cognitive competencies -evolutionary dev specialists studied what plays a role in the survival value -it is not just concerned with genetic and biological basis -how do children learn and whats the goal Theories of child dev-vygotsky and brofenbrenner -we have understood the importance of cultural dev -cultural comparisons are to see if dev applies to all children or are they specific to certain cultures -vygotsky-sociocultural theory -one of the key aspects of dev have to do with social interaction-cooperative dialects where more knowledgeable members will tutor or teach less knowledgeable -they less knowledgeable will learn the right ways from the more knowledgeable -he was concerned with cognitive dev how do they understand the world -he was convinced children were active like piaget -he said children weren;t constructing their own reality, they were learning for more socially mediated processes -they had their own unique strengths that played a role on culture and social experience -vygotsky neglected the biological concept -he gave a lot of emphasis on how children learning socially, but less on how children shape their own dev, whne children play a great part in shaping their own developemtn -brofenbrenner -ecological systems theory: compex systems of relationships -the environment consisted of interrelated layers that formed complex system and the layers behan in the home and had an influence on the childs dev. -microsystem inner most layer of environment: childs immediate surroundings, such as parents -next is the mesosystem that involves connection between the Microsystems like the home, the school -both of the two layers are important and critical ex: academic performance is a function of what they do at school and how much the parents encourage it at home. Next is the exosystem that consist of social system that don’t contain children on a regular basis but can influence them ex: parents work place could affect children depending on the parents schedule. Time off they get could affect the child not direct influence but indirect -macrosystem consist of cultural values law regulations, customs of society. -childrens needs affect rest of layers ex: workplace benefits children with those benfits have better dev. Values of society having daycares, has an effect on nature of dev -diff layers are not a static force, but an everchanging system important life amends can occur -you can add a new microsystem, which can modify the system ex: adding a new child to the home. There is a diff between adding a child to the home when the first one is and infant, then adding a child to the home when the first one is a teen -chromosystem: the relationship among all these layers will change over time. As the child gets older the systems will change. If the child was first in a day care then they go into a grade school the mesosytem will change altering the other layers. Why study research methods? -scientific ideas relies on scientific method -we rely on info if it is back up by empirical info -understand research methods bridging research and practice Dimensions of developmental research -the no
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