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PSYB32 - Lecture 2.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

PSYB32 – Lecture 2 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 3 – The Role of Paradigms - Paradigm – conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works o Ways in which we might come to understand a patient that is before us o A set of basic assumptions that a clinician will make o A general perspective that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject/patient, how to gather and interpret relevant data, and how to think about a subject/patient Slide 4 – Biological Paradigm - Typically follows the medical model o Mental disorder occurs because of some sort of neurobiological antecedent o Reason for the issue can be found in the body - Behaviour genetics o An approach in which we try to understand disorders; the study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable in part to genetics o Genotype vs. phenotype  Born with genotype; it is inherited; it is the unobservable genetic constitution that forms genetic makeup  Phenotype – product of genotype and environment; individual’s observable, behavioural characteristics  A disorder is not inherited genetically, but it can have genetics that leave us predisposed to presenting with the phenotype of the disorder  With a genetic predisposition, we are at a greater risk of having a particular disorder o Family method  If a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited, a study of the family should reveal a relationship between the number of shared genes in the index case (person who has the disorder) ast the prevalence of the disorder in probands (relatives of the index); if you are a 1 degree relative to someone with schizophrenia, you have 10% more chance than the general population of having schizophrenia o Twin method  Monozygotic (MZ) twins  Identical twins; share 100% genetic material  Dizygotic (DZ) twins  Share 50% genetic material; essentially siblings  When both twins have the disorder = concordance  To the extent that a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited, concordance for the disorder should be greater genetically for MZ than DZ twins o Adoptees method  Involves twins raised by non-biological parents  Rules out environmental factors; biological factors are responsible if twins had parents with disorder and they also present with the disorder  Linkage analysis: look for large collection of individuals within a family who might have a disorder; looking for genetic/biological markers to link what may be causing the disorder Slide 5 – Biological Paradigm biochemistry - 2 key terms: o Neurotransmission  Neurotransmitters are molecules that move from one neuron to the next  Serotonin – the brain’s workhorse molecule – inhibits violence tendency  Noradrenaline – sounds alarm for outside threats  Substance p – carries pain messages  Communication lines between neurons are powered with electricity  The messages neurons exchange are chemical molecules (neurotransmitters) that are trapped in a holding tank under electricity frees them  Disorders can result when electricity is unbalanced because chemicals are unbalanced in turn o Reuptake  Takes place in neuron synapse  Synapse: where 2 neurons come close, but do not touch  Synaptic cleft: miniscule gap, separates pre- and postsynaptic neurons Slide 6 – Biological Paradigm: Structure and Function of the Human Brain - Cortical brain surface o Outer layers; structures are important for higher order cognition o Inner structures – subcortical, more involved in movement Slide 7 – Structure and Function of the Human Brain - Subcortical structures o Inner structures found deep in the brain, more involved with movement disorders o Work hand-in-hand with cortical structures - Frontal lobes – responsible for executive functioning (motor movement, planning, inhibition, emotion), important for learning, memory o Right side: responsible for information retrieval (information coming out of the brain); lesion on this side of the brain can give rise to manic episodes o Left side: responsible for oncoding (information going into the brain); lesion on this side can give rise to depressive-like states; houses Broca’s area - Temporal lobes – language centres, houses Wernicke’s area; area for comprehension of verbal sounds; houses the hippocampus which consolidates (stamps into brain so it is later available for retrieval) information (the process between oncoding and retrieval) o Right side: comprehension of verbal sounds (Wernickes) o Left side: comprehension of non-verbal sounds - Parietal lobes – visual-spatial functioning o Left side: may see difficulty understanding movement; apraxia here o Right side: may see visual-spatial neglect here; i.e. may only eat food on left side of the plate - Occipital lobes – responsible for vision Slide 10 – Biological Paradigm – Approaches to Treatment - Psychoactive drugs o Anxiolytics  Used for anxiety, sleep disorders, phobias, pain disorders - Antidepressants o Used for depression, eating disorders, pain disorders, dementia - Antipsychotics o Used for schizophrenia, behavioural disorders, dementia, neurodegenerative disorder, depression - Psycho-stimulants o Improve cognition (i.e. memory, focusing), used for ADHD, Alzheimer’s, dementia - Psychiatry – shotgun approach: use a drug because it might help certain disorder but may use a number of drugs until one is found that might actually be effective with symptoms patient presents Slide 14 – Psychoanalytic Paradigm - Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) o Had many untestable theories o Structure of the mind  3 components responsible for leading to anxiety/neurosis/abnormal behaviour  Abnormal behaviour results from unconscious conflict between these structures within the individual  Id – pleasure principle, primary processing thinking  Unconscious, driven by the need for immediate gratification (i.e. sex, hunger)  Engages in pleasurable activity to alleviate tensions that build from feeling unsatisfied; when one cannot get gratification, the id creates tension that manifests as anxiety  Ego – reality principle; secondary thinking  Conscious, “us” – i.e. the actual individual, deals with reality  Plans, make decisions, comes to conclusions  Ope
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