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PSYB20 Ch 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

PSYB20 RISKS IN THE PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT Chapter 3 – Prenatal Development and birth - Teratogens: an environmental agent that may cause developmental deviations in a growing The Stages of Prenatal development human organism - Prenatal development: 38 weeks (9 months) - Teratogens can exert their effects on prenatal - The 9 months are characterized in two ways development in specific ways: 1. Trimsters: periods of 3 months 1. It effects only during critical periods 2. Zygote, embryo, and fetus 2. Each has their own effects - Proximal-distal: growths first occurs in central 3. Either maternal or fetal genotypes may areas (internal organs) then in more distal areas counteract its effects (such as arms and legs) 4. The effect of one may intensify the - Cephalo-caudal: downward from head to trunk effect of another 5. Different ones may produce same The zygote: (first 2 weeks) defects - The sperm fertilizes the ovum = zygote 6. The longer the exposure, the more - Zygote proceeds down fallopian tubes detrimental the effect - Tendrils of zygote penetrate the blood vessels - Environmental dangers: in the wall of the uterus 1. Legal and illegal drugs - Zygote forms physiological dependence with 2. Nicotine(smoking) and alcohol the mother  Fetal alcohol syndrome  Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder The embryo: (beg of 3 week to end of 8 week)th 3. Heroin, Cocaine, and other drugs - Most important physiological systems and - Environmental Toxins: Lead, PCBs, structures become differentiated - Medical Interventions in Pregnancy and - Amniotic sac: thin membrane around embryo childbirth can have negative effects: for protection from temp, PH... 1. DES (Diethylstilbestrol) –for - Placenta: a fleshy, disk-like structure formed by miscarriages, but had serious effects cells from the lining of the uterus and from the 2. Thalidomide –for morning sickness zygote, protects and sustains embryo’s life 3. Epidural or spinal blocks - Umbilical cord: a tube that contains the blood - Maternal factors: Age and Parity (# of children vessels that carry blood back and forth b/w the she has already), Diet, Emotional State infant and placenta - Disease and Disorders in mother may affect the - Most miscarriages (natural end of a p
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