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Developmental Psychology Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Mark Schmuckler

Developmental Psychology Lecture 2 o Developmental theory which organizes our thinking on a broad range of topics. A good theory is one with good  Parsimony – which is concise, and with fewer principles and explains a larger picture – ideally principle with fewer wins; (2) Falsibility -- which lets you concern or disconcern the theory; (3) Heuristic – which is whether or not you can apply the theory to unknown cases o Assumptions of whether children are born innately good or bad o Nature Vs. Nurture – whether human beings are product of environmental factors or their genes  Now a days we believed that it is a combination of these two that play a role in the growth of human beings o Activity Vs. Passivity – the child’s own role in his or her development, what is the child’s contribution o Continuity of development: there are three different views: a. Continuous/Discontinuous development  Continuous development is one with additive process; a gradual/smooth process of development  Discontinuous development is one in which development is in stages b. Quantitative/Qualitative development  Quantitative development is one in which changes in degree (example: as you get older, you gradually get taller) – continuous development  Qualitative development is one in which change in kind (example: tadpole  frog) – discontinuous development c. Connectedness of development  What are the connections between early development in attribute with later development  Two types in this case which include: related (continuous) and unrelated (discontinuous) o Similarity Vs. Differences (ability to literacy can vary culture to culture; person to person) – how universal (humans all follow similar developmental paths) is development o Sigmund Freud who was psychiatrist, in Victorian Europe, formulated a theory from his observation of mental patients;  Psychoanalytical perspective conflicts that arise over development which try to uncover unconscious problems  During childhood, the child had sexual impulses that focus on different parts of the body during different ages  Created 5 different stages: 1. Oral stage – libido focus on the mouth 2. Anal stage – ability to go the washroom (parents trying to impose structure) 3. Phalic stage – genitals (incestuous desires)  Odipus complex – which is specific to boys in which they try to act like father and desire mother and feel fear of father castrating their penis  Electra complex – not intense and fades away as they get older 4. Latency stage – quiet stage 5. Genital stage – puberty (desire for friendship, romance, etc.)  Prior to Freud’s oral stage, no one knew the importance of the early experiences  Phallic stage which is the process of identification, it’s not as intense in girls therefore women are going to have weaker superego o Advantage of Freud’s theory -- One of first individuals much of human behavior done by unconscious motivations  The major role of early experiences giving impact on later experiences and growth and development o Disadvantages of Freud’s theory -- Over emphasized the importance of sex in personality and development  19 century Victorian era  Functional of historical context  Due to the different types of participants – not applicable across cultures  Based on the lack of observation of children which is hard to study using psychoanalytic development  Girls understanding of morality is as sophisticated as boys  If boys don’t have father, no identification ~ some studies do in fact support this theory though o Erik Erikson – developed the psychosocial development which expanded upon Fred’s ideas  It was not particularly focused on “sex” and instead focused on the complexes of social relations  It provides us with notion that development is a lifelong process and it still thought about today o Learning theory (behaviorism) – concern of psychology should be focused on observable states – can directly observe stimuli and the responses to these stimuli; its an objective scientific approach o John B. Watson – stated that classical conditioning – like little Albert (11 month old) can be conditioned to fear a white rat with sharp loud sound. In which the baby began to fear the white rat  These results were consistent with John Locke and viewed development as very much continuous o B.F. Skinner – stated that operant conditioning which is when behavior structured by consequences of behavior  Reinforcer which are rewards more likely behavior
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