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Lecture

Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter One The Behaviour Modification Approach Behaviour - Synonyms of behaviour include: activity, action, performance, responding, response and reaction. - Essentially behaviour is anything that a person says or does - Technically, behaviour is any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism. - Products of behaviour is for example getting an “A” in a course due to studying effectively and losing 10 pounds because of resisting overating anad exercising more Overt Behaviour - Walking, talking, throwing a ball, yelling at someone—are all visible behaviour that could be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one performing the behaviour. Covert Behaviour - internal, private - activities that cannot be readily observed by others - all behaviour is potentially observable, but private or covert behaviour do not typically refer to behaviours done in private, such as undressing in a bedroom, or cheating on exams (secretive actions) - Rather, they refer to activities that occur “within one’s skin” and that therefore require special instruments for other to observe. - Ex! before you go out on the skating rink for your competition, a figure skater might think “ I hope I don’t fall” and she might feel nervous and have increased heard rate! this is called “Private self-talk” . Thinking and feeling are private behaviours Dimensions of Behaviour - Characteristics of behaviour that can measured Duration of Behaviour - Length of time the behaviour lasts Frequency of Behaviour - Number of instances that occur in given period of time Intensity or Force of Behaviour - Refers to the physical effort or energy involved in emitting the behaviour - Ex! mary has a strong grip when shaking hands -Why are summary terms or labels for behaviour patterns so frequently used in psychology and in everyday life? www.notesolution.com 1) they may be useful got quickly providing general information about how a labeled individual might perform Ex! a 10 year old child who has been labeled as having a severe developmental disability, for ex. Not being able to read even at the first grade-level. 2) The labels might imply that a particular treatment program will be helpful. Someone who is frequently angry might take some anger management courses or someone who isn’t assertive might take assertive training courses. Labeling also poses disadvantages: - labeling can lead to pseudo (false) explanations of behaviour - labeling behaviour is not the CAUSE of the behaviour. It just describes the behaviour being acted out by the individual - Disadvantage of labeling is that label can negatively affect the way an individual might be treated. - Another disadvantage of labeling is that it may direct our focus to an individual’s problem behaviours rather than to his or her strengths. Ex! kid doesn’t make his bed every morning, but mows the lawn and picks up the garbage. Parents might call him “lazy”. That label may cause them to focus on the problem behaviour that to praise the positive behaviours. -In this book, we strongly stress the importance of defining all types of problems in terms of Behavioural Deficits (too little of a behaviour of a particular type) or Behavioural Excess (too much of a behaviour of a particular type). This is so because: 1) To help avoid the problems using general summary labels 2) Regardless of the labels attached to an individual, it is behaviour that causes concern—and behaviour that must be treated to alleviate the problems. 3) Specific procedures are now available that can be used in school, in the workplace, and in home settings. Characteristic of Behavior Modification 1) The most important characteristic of behaviour modification is its strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behaviour that can be measured in some way and using changes in the behavioral measure of the problems as the best indicator of the extent to which the problem is being helped. 2) Another characteristic of behavior modification is that its treatment procedures and techniques are ways of altering an individual’s current environment to help the individual function more fully. Environment- refers to the people, objects, and events currently present in one’s immediate surroundings that impinge on one’s sense receptors and that can affect behavior. Stimuli- these people, objects, and events that make up a person’s environment www.notesolution.com 3) Its methods and rationales can be described precisely. This makes it possible for behaviour modifiers to read descriptions of procedures used by their colleagues, replicate them, and get essentially the same results. 4) the techniques of behaviour modification are often applied by individuals in everyday life. The precise descriptions of behaviour modification techniques makes it possible for individuals such as teachers, parents, coaches, etc to apply behaviour modification to help individuals in every day life. (Even I can do it!) 5) to a large extent, the techniques stem from basic and applied research in the science of learning in general, and the principles of operant and Pavlovians conditioning in particular. 6) Scientific demonstration that a particular intervention was responsible for a particular behavior change, and it places high value on accountability for everyone involved in behaviour modification programs: client, admin, staff, etc THUS, behaviour modification involved the systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals’ covert and overt behaviours in order to enhance their functioning. Target Behaviour- behaviors to be improved in a behavior modification program Behavioral assessment involves the collection and analysis of information and data in order to: - identify and describe target behaviours - identify possible causes of the behavior - guide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment - evaluate treatment outcome Behavioural Analysis- refers to the scientific study of laws that govern the behaviour of human beings and other animals Applied Behavior Analysis- - is behaviour modification in which there is typically an attempt to analyze or clearly demonstrate controlling variables of the behaviour of concern. - Typically focuses on overt behaviours that are of social significance (littering, public education, parenting skills, etc) or clinical significance (anger management, copying by the elderly). -Behaviour modification approach focuses primarily on behaviour and involved current environmental (as opposed to surgical, pharmacological, or medical) manipulations to change behavior. -Individuals labeled as persons with developmental disabilities, autism, schizophrenia, depressions or an anxiety disorder are individuals who show behavioral deficits and behavioral excesses. www.notesolution.com -Similarly, people labeled as lazy, selfish, unmotivated, incompetent are also views as behavioral excess and deficits.- www.notesolution.comChapter One The Behaviour Modification Approach Behaviour - Synonyms of behaviour include: activity, action, performance, responding, response and reaction. - Essentially behaviour is anything that a person says or does - Technically, behaviour is any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism. - Products of behaviour is for example getting an A in a course due to studying effectively and losing 10 pounds because of resisting overating anad exercising more Overt Behaviour - Walking, talking, throwing a ball, yelling at someoneare all visible behaviour that could be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one performing the behaviour. Covert Behaviour - internal, private - activities that cannot be readily observed by others - all behaviour is potentially observable, but private or covert behaviour do not typically refer to behaviours done in private, such as undressing in a bedroom, or cheating on exams (secretive actions) - Rather, they refer to activities that occur within ones skin and that therefore require special instruments for other to observe. - Ex before you go out on the skating rink for your competition, a figure skater might think I hope I dont fall and she might feel nervous and have increased heard rate this is called Private self-talk . Thinking and feeling are private behaviours Dimensions of Behaviour - Characteristics of behaviour that can measured Duration of Behaviour - Length of time the behaviour lasts Frequency of Behaviour - Number of instances that occur in given period of time Intensity or Force of Behaviour - Refers to the physical effort or energy involved in emitting the behaviour - Ex mary has a strong grip when shaking hands -Why are summary terms or labels for behaviour patterns so frequently used in psychology and in everyday life? www.notesolution.com
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