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Perception and cognition lec 1.docx

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Matthias Niemeier

Perception and cognition lec 1  What does early philosophy teach us about perception? o Plato’s Cave Allegory  What the prisoners perceive is very limited  This is plato’s metaphor for our perception  Our perception is very limited, and reality is much richer o Perception and your sense of reality are the products of evolution  Plato didn’t have this available  Importance of type of energy in the environment determines which senses have developed  Ex venus fly trap, evolved to have a tactile sense perception. Vibrations trigger the plant to close.  That is essentially their reality  Some animals are able to sense stimuli that humans cannot  We don’t necessarily need these senses. (ex snakes sense of infrared light to catch mice, we don’t need it because we don’t have a need to eat mice)  Echolocation  Ex dolphins o Ben underwood (blind child) sent out clicks with his tongue and could see using that o Heraclitus “you can never step into the same river twice.”  Panta rhei: everything floys  You cannot perceive the same event in the same manner each time o Because of experience/learning, adaptation, change  We are much better at picking up things that change in either time or space  Adaptation: a reduction in response caused by prior or continuing stimulation  Ex male/female face demo o Democritus: the world is made up of atoms that collide with one another  Sensations are caused by atoms leaving objects and making contact with our sense organs  Splitting wood until he cannot split it anymore and then it becomes a “wood atom”  Believed that the world was tangible, unlike plato, because we are interacting with the atoms  Sensory transducer: a receptor that converts physical energy from the environment into neural activity  The nativism and empiricism of knowledge o Nativism: the idea that the mind produces ideas that are not derived from external sources. You are born with knowledge  Plato: truest sense of reality comes from people’s minds and souls  Not from perception  There is something other than your body, your soul  Dualist view:  Descartes o Soul and mind have knowledge  Mind body dualism  Monism: the idea that the mind and matter are formed from, or reducible to, a single ultimate substance or principle of being  Only conscience is real, everything else is an il
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