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Lecture 9

PSYB64 Lecture 9.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB64 Lecture 9 “ learning and memory” • Not responsible for: Classical conditioning in vertebrates pages 348 to 351 Biochemical factors in long term memory pages 366 to 368 You need to know LTP pages 358 to 361 only to the extent it is covered in lecture • Learning Types of Learning Using Invertebrates to Study Learning Classical Conditioning in Vertebrates • Memory Types of Memory Brain Mechanisms in Memory Effects of Stress and Aging LEARNING • A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience • Types of Learning a. Associative and nonassociative learning b. Habituation and Sensitization i. types of nonassociative learning that do not involve forming a connection between two elements or events. c. Classical Conditioning i. is a type of associative learning that does involve forming a connection between two elements or events. • Habituation occurs when an organism reduces its response to a repeated stimulus. Often habituation occurs to unchanging, harmless stimuli as a means of focusing our attention on relevant stimuli. • Sensitization occurs when an exposure to a strong stimulus actually heightens an organism’s overall level of response to other environmental stimuli. Classical Conditioning • Pavlov and the canine digestive system. • Classical conditioning occurs when an organism learns that stimuli may act as signals that predict the occurrence of other important events. • Typically, classical conditioning involves the pairing of an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), which elicits an innate unconditioned response (UCR), with a neutral stimulus called the conditioned stimulus (CS) that is not innately associated with the UCS and UCR. • The UCS and CS pairing may only need to occur once for some types of learning such as conditioned taste aversions, but often require multiple pairings in order to form an association between the CS and the UCR. • When the unconditioned response behavior can be elicited by presenting the CS in absence of the UCS then the response is called a conditioned response (CR). LEARNING • Using Invertebrates to Study Learning Sea slug Aplysia californica Habituation in Aplysia Gill withdrawal reflex Reduced activity at synapse between sensory and motor neurons Sensitization in Aplysia A stimulus gains the ability to influence more than one neural pathway Increased neurotransmitter release by sensory neuron Classical Conditioning in Aplysia Sequential activation of sensory neurons by CS and UCS leads to greater neurotransmitter release. Habituation and sensitization in Aplysia structural changes in synapses from learning Classical conditioning in aplysia Atkinson- Shiffrin Model of memory MEMORY • Brain Mechanisms in Memory Early Efforts to Locate Memory Functions Lashley – engram Penfield– Recordings during surgery Temporal Lobe and Memory H.M.’s anterograde amnesia The delayed nonmatching to sample (DNMS) test Karl Lashley Observed the Results of Brain Lesions on Maze-Learning Performance Trapped in the Eternal Now : Introducing HM HM • Henry, but know as HM • Suffered from epileptic seizures since the age of 16 • Condition became steadily worse and could not be controlled by medication • Had to stop work at age 27 • Symptoms indicated that the seizures began in the medial basal regions of both temporal lobes • 1953 neurologist removed this tissue, including much of the amygdala and HC bilaterally • Upon recovery, H.M. seizures were milder and could be controlled by medication • He suffered moderate retrograde amnesia (loss of memory for events that occurred shortly before brain damage, i.e. he had difficulty retrieving memories that had formed during the 10 years before the operation) and severe anterograde amnesia (loss of LT memories for events that happened after brain damage) Anterograde amnesia • loss of memories for events that happened after brain damage • Figure b below • inability to retain new material for more than a brief period Retrograde Amnesia • loss of memory for events that occurred shortly before brain damage •
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