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Psychology (7,782)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 7

lecture 7 notes

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Ted Petit

Lecture 7: Mechanisms of drug actions, psychopharmacology of neural stimulants - everyone has different views on what drugs one should or shouldn’t take (good vs. bad) - what is legal in one country, may not be legal in others; same as at different times within a country (eg. smoking in public places) How drugs are classified: 1) prescription drugs – drugs that you need a prescription for 2) OTC drugs – must get them from the drug store, but no prescription needed (eg. codeine) 3) social drugs – nicotine, alcohol, caffeine 4) not produced for social reasons (cant buy it in a store) or you can buy it in stores, but you don’t usually use it for psychoactive effect – eg. airplane glue Tolerance: - if a drug is taken repeatedly, most drugs show a decreasing behavioural effect - more you take it, the less effect that it has - the more you stimulate a neural system, the post synaptic side will compensate, either by reducing the number or sensitivity of receptors (if drug is a stimulant) or increase the sensitivity or numbers of the receptors (if drug is a depressant) Withdrawl: - if you have been taking a drug for a long period of time, and then suddenly stop taking it, will have a craving for the drug - behavioural affect of withdrawl is almost the exact opposite of the behavioural effect of the drug itself (due to the compensation of tolerance) - never take people off depressants (alcoholics included) because run risk of having seizures and dying  substitute the alcohol with another depressant that doesn’t have all the behavioural affects of alcohol, and then slowly wean them off the drug Addiction: - person enjoys and becomes dependant upon the drug - there are different levels of addiction - the more rapid the effect of the drug, the more addicting it is – eg. coca leaf is not very addictive, while the crack cocaine is most addictive and more rapid -psychological addiction: person has become behaviourally dependant on the drug - physical addiction: if take drug away, there has to be physical withdrawl symptoms that can be measured (sweating, changes in galvanic skin responces, seizures) Stimulants: - have to activate the CNS - in EEG, can see cerebral cortex switch into an active state - they all inhibit sleep 1) CAFFEINE:  found in coffee and tea – coffee has more caffeine in it  inhibits sleep tolerance: some tolerance does develop, but not very strong tolerance  often found in headache remedies; good at stopping headaches  after a coffee, it stimulates the digestive system  withdrawl: involves in headaches, constipation  estimated that toxic dose of coffee would be between 70 and 100 cups of coffee  mechanism of action: inhibits the breakdown of cyclic-AMP, causing an increase in amount of cAMP, which then causes increased glucose production and heightened cellular activity  works through cellular metabolism rather than transmitter system (so far what we know) 2) NICOTINE: found in tobacco leaves - mimics Ach at nicotinic cholinergic receptors in post synaptic neurons - increases bp and heart rate - some tolerance will develop, but not very strong (never completely tolerant) -withdrawl involves craving, depression, - toxicity: hard to kill yourself,
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