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PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Vascular supply: A. Can get a blockage of vascular supply or of blood flow Caused by (Types): 1. Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA): AKA - A Stroke Something has happened to the blood supply of the brain Generally refers to a severe interruption of blood supply to the brain Usually happens very fast (in theory can be slow, e.g. through blood-clots)  Larger the blocked artery, the larger the area of brain that is damaged Whenever this happens (blocking blood) it results in ischemia: that part of the brain is not receiving enough oxygen and glucose . Most of the time this is a result of stroke Ischemic: Lack of oxygen and glucose Ischemia is RESULT of CVA (Like cardiac arrest is result of heart attack) Lock yourself in car: no O2, would still get ischemia Infarct - Area (tissue) of the brain that is dead Person had a CVA which resulted in ischemia, which we can see based on the appearance of an infarct 2. Encephalomalacia: blood supply loss happens very slowly Occurs over years Softening of the brain tissue - looks like deteriorating tissue (rotting fruit) Arteriosclerosis can be a cause Cholesterol building up in arteries can cause this Filling up artery Dementia - can be a potential result 3. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): Temporary Not enough oxygen for minutes/hours Enough to affect neuronal function Seeing in migraines Constriction (muscles around blood vessels) such that the brain does not die but the section of brain does not get enough glucose/oxygen Commonly people cannot see things at certain times - could happen for hours (occipital cortex) Causes of the blockage: Thrombosis: Locally formed occlusion. Local blockage Blood clot (Older people tend to have this more) Thickening of the blood - coagulation More common when sedentary Embolism: blockage that is formed elsewhere in the body Breaks off, floats around in the arteries and then lodges within the brain Could get blood clots in their legs and travel through the vascular supply till it lodges anywhere - could be brain or heart or even lungs If it lodges in the brain it creates a stroke Arteriosclerosis: cholesterol forming plaque on the inside of the artery Slowly Strokes - usually start from the heart and move upwards - this is why you have to be careful when putting in a heart stent (the narrow tubing that helps when arteries are blocked/weakening) otherwise the cholesterol plaque may simply move up and enter the brain and cause a stroke - the embolism could happen anywhere B. Can get a Bursting of the blood vessels Cerebral Hemorrhage: - Massive bleeding into the brain itself Depending on where it was and which vessel burst, it could be life threatening Circle of Willis - could kill entire area Tiny area - person may not even notice it Bleeding has to be inside the brain Subdural Hematoma: - Bleeding between the dura and the brain It is technically bleeding outside of the brain Bleeding between the brain and the skull Creates a great deal of pressure on the brain Left hand side: White area = blood Black part: Cerebral ventricles Lateral ventricles Grey area: the brain Subdural hematoma: Bleeding between the brain and skull Putting a lot of pressure on the brain There should be a ventricle on both sides - in this case everything has been pushed to one side Blood pushing up on brain so hard that all the cerebrospinal fluid was pushed in the right lateral ventricle Treatment: Since outside the brain, you can take the blood out Stop the bleeding, and so the pressure is removed Problem: brain is so plastic it can adapt to the surrounding and balance things out It is harder to find it out As we get older, we are more likely to get hematoma Angioma: Collection or a mass of blood vessels that are usually enlarged and abnormal  People are born with these aberrations  Abnormal during development  It may be genetic, we are not sure at this time Angiomas are fragile More prone to bursting since they are more delicate Aneurysm: Vascular dilation Expanded blood vessel Just a swelling, does not necessarily need to burst Caused by localized problem in elasticity Blood vessel loses its strength Could lead to a stroke if the blood vessel bursts Bleeding because of a subdural hematoma or a hemorrhage (Making a long animal balloon - pushing pressure into one area it will expand) NEW TOPIC Closed Head Injuries Blow to head that does NOT directly affect the brain E.g. automobile accident, walking along and falling, skiing accident (Getting shot would not count since the brain is actually touched) Essentially you are bruising the brain such that it will begin to SWELL - like finger when you bash it Minor - concussion Get hit in the head Confusion, memory loss. Usually weeks, can extend into months Brain does not have room
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