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chapter 10 psyb65

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Psyb65 – chapter 10 Spatial Ability What is spatial ability?  Spatial ability: when we process the position, direction, or movement of objects  Real space: what you can sense right now  Imagines space: you can think of even though you can’t directly experience it right now  There are 6 skills that correspond to how we interact in space: o Targeting: how well u can throw an object at a target o Spatial orientation: how well you reorganize items even when they are placed in different orientations o Spatial location memory: how well u remember the location of objects o Spatial visualization: how well you can imagine how well pieces of object would go together o Disembedding: how well you can find figures that are hidden within other pictures o Spatial perception: how well you can determine where horizontal is in the real world even when given distracting information Hemispheric representation of space:  Left hemisphere: brain is specialized for language  Right hemisphere: spatial processing  The most basic spatial ability is the ability to localize a point in space  Normal people can identify the location of a dot more readily when it occurs in the left visual field  Left visual field advantage at seeing the dot is due to right hemisphere spatial superiority  The right hemisphere appears to be involved with the recall of spatial location info  The ability to determine relative position of an object known as depth perception is another very basic spatial ability o Its divided into 2 types: 1. Local depth perception: the ability to use detailed features of objects point by point to access relative position 2. Global depth perception: ability to use the different between the info reaching each eye to compute the entire visual scene  Local depth perception is not as simple: the determination of which objects is in front of another shows a left visual field advantage in normal, whereas both right and left hemisphere lesions disrupts local depth perception  Line orientation: being able to differentiate between the letters d and p  Determination of spatial relationships between objects may rely on the ability to determine whether or not an item shares spatial properties with another. Known as object geometry  And it also relied on the ability to reconstruct previously viewed items  To identify an object, especially when moving, we need to have the ability to track and identify the object when it is rotated o Tracking related to our ability to determine where an object is currently and where it will be momentarily  The detection of motion is related to increased activity in the right hemisphere, particularly in the occipital, temporal, and parietal areas associated with the processing of visual information  Mental rotation: rotation that does not occur overtly  Mental rotation abilities rely on the right hemisphere and there’s enhanced accuracy in the left visual field Parietal lobes:  Visual info is received in the primary visual area of the brain  transferred to other areas of the occipital lobe  The visual system is hierarchically organized, with each of the extrastriate areas performing a specific function, such as analyzing the spatial frequency of the visual info  Most of the info passes up the hierarchy for further analysis and that most systems in the brain communicate extensively with other related parted of the brain  Most functions are integrative and that they rely on performance of multiple areas  Inside the occipital lobe, the info seems to be divided into dorsal and ventral streams o Ventral stream: “what” pathway – useful for identifying objects o Dorsal stream: “how” pathway – how motor acts must be performed to manipulate an object  There are cells in this area (5&7) that allow stable cognitive maps to be made  They respond to movements that occur in specific directions allowing objects to be tracked in space  The cells in the inferior parietal region are sensitive to retinotopic representations of space as well as head position, movement, and the speed of the movement  Spatial relations = parietal lobe  Discrimination of form involved the ventral system, whereas the discrimination of spatial location involves the dorsal stream  Right parietal lobe is activated when we perform tasks that require spatial location  The dorsal stream of the parietal lobe are well suited to process information about how to interact with objects and where they are in space Frontal lobes:  There’s a system of parietal cells that project to the frontal lobes  The frontal lobes received massive amounts of inputs from somatosensory, auditory and visual association areas of the parietal lobe  The function is to provide accurate coordinate system of visual space and to locate objects in space  The neurons of the frontal lobe guides movement  The neurons of the frontal lobe communicate extensively with those in the parietal lobe to program motor movements aimed at reaching and grasping objects in space  The activation of dorsal stream in the parietal lobe is for visuospatial working memory Temporal lobes  Dorsal stream involved with identifying where an object is in space and guiding motor movements  Ventral stream is involved with identifying of the object, deciding what the object is  The temporal lobes are involved with naming objects and also spatial learning  The hippocampal formation plays a role in tasks of explicit memory o It engages in processing memory for places o If damaged, they cannot form new memory for places  They have trouble utilizing spatial info to produce memories about locations  Place cells: are cells within the hippocampus that are external at respond hen rats are moving through space o They appear when the rat gets more familiar with the new environment  Position responses: those that are made with movements using the body as a referent o They don’t need any cues that are external to the body, its automatic  Cued responses: types of movements that are guided by a cue o It relied on the cues external to your body  Place responses: response that you make toward a particular location /object o They can be made even when a stimulus is not present o They tend to be rational  Intrapersonal space: space immediately around your body, including your body o Extrapersonal space: more than 5 ft away from you *dorsal stream, collaborating the activity of the parietal and frontal lobes controls movements directed at personal space Personal Representa
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