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PSYB65-lecture 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65: LECTURE 1  [email protected]  How the brain is organized about a specific function. What happens in an abnormal situation? An accident, stroke , tumour  Basic overview of the human brain  NERVOUS SYSTEM Is divided into the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (CNS) and (PNS)  CNS; consists of the brain and the spinal chord  PNS: everything else  nerves that run from the spinal cord out into your fingers, face, etc. that gather information (face hot/cold, body part fell asleep) , and it also sends information out to control the muscles of your body  Spinal cord is continuous with the brain , we just say that when it enters the back of the skull, there isn’t much difference within the nervous system (one big interconnected system)  Your brain is divided into the forebrain the midbrain and the hindbrain  Hindbrain is composed of the CEREBELLUM  Cerebellum is involved with SENSORY MOTOR INTEGRATION o Receives information from the outside world through our senses, integrates this information and then it puts out a message to control the muscles o If you feel hot, the brain tells the brain that you feel hot, and then it sends out a message to the muscles to pull away from the heat source o Nervous system receives sensory information controls that information (integrates the information) and sends it out to the muscles o Muscles are referred to as MOTOR CONTROL , sensory information is referred to as sensation or sensory system o CEREBELLUM : sensory – motor integration  taking sensory information and integrating it with motor information to control your body ( allowing humans to stand up) o When you damage your cerebellum, they have poor balance, and have trouble standing up o Cerebellum sits on top of the brain stem  Medalla is responsible for basic life processes. o Keeps you alive at the most basic level: heart beat and respiration  Midbrain: reticular formation very important for regulating sleep and wakefulness cycles or circadian rhythms. o Making you wake up and fall asleep (if you get a stroke in this area you probably wont wake up)  Forebrain: there are several different structures o Anterior :towards the front o Posterior: towards the back o Thalamus, and beneath it is the hypothalamus o Thalamus is a relay centre: information coming from the spinal cord, is relayed forward into more modern parts of the brain within the human  In humans we have a frontal part of the brain that does most of intellectual thought, and to relay onto this newer place.  Underneath it is the hypothalamus  it controls life processes in a more complex way  It keeps the individual and species alive for a LONGER PERIOD OF TIME  Its responsible for eating behaviour, drinking, Motivating behaviours: hunger and thirst  It is involved in territoriality  we fight over territory, critical resources by fighting off other animals  It is critical for the survival of the group and the family , aggression and violence is associated with defending oneself and territory (fighting)  CONTROLS SEX sexual behaviour is located in the hypothalamus , which involves finding a mate. Sexual behaviour is controlled by smells, the male smells the smell and gets excited. Olfaction is really important for the hypothalamus. Other factors include  Finding a sexual mate, Reproductive behaviours, maternal behaviours, are all controlled by the hypothalamus  Hypothalamus: if it feels good then it’s in the hypothalamus  Involves, eating , drinking, sexual behaviour  FOUR F’s: FIGHTING, FEEDING, FIGHTING and SEXUAL REPRODUCTION (controlled by the hypothalamus)  LIMBIC SYSTEM  System of interconnected brain parts (not simple)  Comprised of amygdala , hippocampus, olfactory bulb  System of structure that is involved in emotion  System of tightly interconnected brain structures that are involved in emotion and emotionality  Humans have a highly evolved sense of emotion  Primitive animals, don’t have a big emotional repertoire  Dogs have a relatively large emotional repertoire and are highly evolved animals. Humans have love, passion, anger, remorse, grief , depression , revenge, an incredible emotional repertoire  Revenge, jealousy, love, etc. Humans have much more complicated emotionality. Emotionality in humans is an important component of our behavioural repertoire.  Our limbic system is very important to HUMANS  Cerebral cortex: the most anterior structure in the brain (neo-cortex) o It’s a massive structure within the h
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