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PSYB65 Lec 3 Neurological Techniques and Brain Disorders.doc

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Ted Petit

Neurological Techniques and Brain Disorders Sunday, October 28, 2012 7:09 PM Some of the Things that go wrong in the system • Vascular Supply of the Brain • What can go wrong? • Blockage of the vascular supply • Different kinds of blockage • (1) Cerebro-vascular accident (CVA): • Often used to refer to a stroke • Generally refers to a severe interruption in the blood supply to the brain • When this happens, it results in ischemia - the brain is not receiving enough oxygen and glucose • Ischemia is the result of stroke or blockage • If it is severe enough, • Leads to an infarct (area of dead or dying tissue) • CVA can be slow or fast • Generally fast The larger the artery that's blocked, the larger the area of brain that's going • to be destroyed • (2) Encephalomalacia: • Refers to a situation where the bloody supply loss is very slow • Different from a stroke/CVA which is always very fast • Occurs over years • A softening of the brain tissue • Looks like an area of deteriorating tissue • Most often caused by a slow blockage of the arteries (ateriosclerosis) • Can cause dementia • (3) TIA's (Transient Ischemic Attack): • Temporary • Short lived • Minutes to hours • Not enough oxygen going to the brain • Most often seen in things like migraines • Constriction of muscles surrounding the blood vessels • Restricts blood supply to the brain • Leads to people with migraines not being able to see things • What causes these things? • Thrombosis - locally formed occlusion, (happens on the spot)-things like a blood clot, older people often have problems with blood becoming thicker - more likely to form clots (particularly if sedentary) • Embolism - blockage formed ELSEWHERE in the body - lodges in the brain • Blood supply can also burst: • (1) Cerebral Hemorrhage • Massive bleeding into the brain • Can be life threatening • Depends on where and which blood vessel •Refers to a bleeding inside the brain •(2) Subdural Hematoma •Bleeding outside the brain •Between the dura and the brain •No bleeding within brain itself •Creates a great deal of pressure on the brain •Slide - all fluid in one ventricle squeezed over to the other side •Treatment - if caught in time - get rid of the blood, stop the bleeding, if caught in time person will be perfectly healthy •Problem is, brain is so plastic that often times the symptoms come and go •Angioma: •Collection or a mass of blood vessels , usually enlarged and abnormal •Born with it •Blood vessel breaks apart and forms a web of interconnected blood vessels that then comes back together •Can be very fragile - more prone to bursting and strokes •Aneurism: •Vascular dilation •Expanded blood vessel that is caused by localized problems in elasticity •Could lead to a stroke if the blood vessel bursts •Caused by weakening in the blood vessels Closed Head Injuries •Caused by a blow to the head that does not actually break into the brain itse
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