Class Notes (807,638)
Canada (492,764)
Psychology (7,610)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)

PSYB65 Lec 6 Psychiatric and Degenerative Disorders.doc

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Psychiatric and Degenerative Disorders Sunday, October 28, 2012 7:09 PM • Exam next Monday, 5pm • 50 questions - MCQ • 25/25 text and lecture • Read text • Focus on the book • What goes on in the brain - biochemical problems • Schizophrenia: • Symptoms: Hallucinations and delusions, hearing voices • History of understanding schizophrenia • Freud: • Classical Neuro Approach • Poor performance in tests of frontal lobe function • Reduced abilities in verbal and nonverbal memory • Everything else within normal range • Enlarged ventricles and lighter brain weight • Issue - these are people who have had schizophrenia for many years, with drugs. Primary issue is transmitters, not neuropsychological Genetics studies: • • 1 out of 100 people - 0.5-1% of population • Look at immediate family (parents, siblings children) • Rate of schizo goes up 10-15% • Within family, there is 10 times the probability of having schizophrenia if your immediate family has it. • Twin Studies - • Dizygotic - 10-15% • Monozygotic - if one twin is schizo, prob of other being schizo - 40-75% • Suggests genetic component • Monozygotic twins, while sharing same genes, are not 100% • Indicates that other factors play a part in schizophrenia Psychopharmacology • Antihistamines were used and were found to calm people down • Certain drugs were better than others • Antipsychotic drugs - best ones were dopamine antagonists (blockers) • Phenothiazines, Chlorpromazine • Effectiveness was directly related to ability to block dopamine receptors • Suggested that dopamine was a problem and the receptors • Dopamine stimulants - amphetamine - did two things: • (1) if you were schizo, and had no symptoms at the moment, you immediately became psychotic • (2) even in normal individuals, if you give them high levels of dopamine stimulants, they will begin to show schizophrenic types of behaviours • Give them in high doses for 24 hours • Stimulation of dopaminergic receptors, even in normal persons, can cause them to have schizo like symptoms • Went into brains of schizophrenics to investigate them, thought they would find there was a lot more dopamine • Not the case - normal dopamine levels • What they do have is too many dopamine receptors (and sensitivity) • D2 and D4 receptors • Have as much as 6 times the number of D2 and D4 receptors • Problems with compliance • Too little dopamine - Parkinsons Depression, Mania, Bipolar Disorder • Depression - extreme, not sleeping, sleeping all time, eating a lot or not at all, suicidal • Mania - extreme highs • Bipolar - cycles of highs and lows • Historical Understanding: • Gave people blood pressure medication • Found Reserpine caused depression • Reserpine causes the transmitter - monoamine s - causes them to leak from the pre-synaptic vesicle • By doing this, it caused fewer biogenic amines to be around, caused depression • Reduction in biogenic amines • Aldomet - blocks synthesis of NE - also caused depression (bp reducer) • Too little monoamines caused depression • Brains of depressed patients - • Some depressed patients commit suicide Found 20-25% of cases had a reduction in 5HIAA - seratonin • • NE and Seratonin - suggested they were involved • Tried treating people to increase activity of the biogenic amines • Most effective - tricycli
More Less

Related notes for PSYB65H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.