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lec 2 - brain components.doc

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Ted Petit

Sept 19 lec 2 – brain components From last lecture: - Back of brain more primitive (emotions, territorial, sex, eating, finding) - Front of brain more advanced (evolutionary new, more complex processes) - Still have primitive stuff even when evolved More in depth of the cerebral cortex and its many lobes (functionally divided) - Cerebral cortex folds back and covers everything except cerebellum - Cerebral cortex folds on itself and creates a mountain and valley look (helps locate sections) - Gyrus (gyri-plural) -> mountains in the brain - Sulcus (Sulci-plural) -> valley - 2 sides ( left/right ) of brain doesn’t look connected with a groove that divides hemispheres, but it is connected - 2 sides Connected by fiber pathway (corpus callosum) o Connects analogous areas ( anterior with anterior, etc.) -> similar areas - Left hemisphere o Controls right side and gets info from right - Right hemisphere o Controls left hand side of body and gets info from left side - 3 main Fissures (sulcus) o Longitudinal fissure - Groove that that divides left and right o Central sulcus – separates 2 lobes (frontal and parietal) o Lateral fissure ( sylvian fissure ) – separates another lobe (temporal lobe) 4 Lobes in cerebral cortex - Frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe - Each lobe has a primary cortex that deals with primary function o Primary receptive area (receives a sense from sensory organ) – input point - Also has an associational cortex – around or besides primary cortex o Like computing power -> processes input o Takes simple info and builds onto it (makes sense of things) o High order processing (recent in term of evolution)  More evolved species have higher % of associated than primary - Sensory input vs. motor output o After input is processed, motor area sends signal output to muscles - Brodmann -> mapped brain (slide 3) o Numbered parts of brain -> significant -> still used heavily now -> meaningful (important) o primary receptive areas - Frontal o Most Anterior(front) portion to the central sulcus o Brodmann area 4 and6 -> primary receptive area of frontal cortex o Primary function: Controls motor movement, planning, and inhibiting inappropriate behavior o Primary motor strip (precentral gyrus) -> mountain right in front of central sulcus  Primary cortex of frontal -> strip of tissue in cortex that deals with prim fxn.  Names: Primary motor strip, precentral gyrus, brodmann’s area 4 and 6  Has a symmetrical organization -> specific parts move specific muscles • Inner top near central sulcus-> foot • More to top center -> leg and knee • More to side -> torso • Moreover -> fingers and hand • All the way to the side -> face, lips  Homunculus -> looks like there is a small person in the brain • Movements, twitches o Move forward in front of primary -> associational cortex  Planning of stuff -> higher order process  Planning of movement, planning of lifestyle and stuff - Parietal o Central sulcus till occipital lobe ( no clear boundary between parietal and occipital) o 3,1,2 -> primary receptive area in parietal o Post central gyrus is the primary area o Prim fxn: Somato sensory input  Receive info from body’s non-specialized senses  Skin is non-specialized eye, ears, nose -> specialized o Everything behind post central gyrus is associational cortex  Deals with/processes in other senses  Deals with “what’s me and what’s not me” o Has a homunculus -> deals with sensations and feeling senses -> pain  Similar to the one in frontal lobe  Size on brain is in proportion to sensitivity • Big area of lips -> lips very sensitive • Big area for hands -> fingers are sensitive • Etc. - Occipital o deals with vision (input from eye)  prim fxn: receives info from eyes ; primary visual area o brodmann area 17 -> primary receptive area in occipital cortex - Temporal o Deals with speech and hearing o Area 41 -> primary receptive area in temporal o Ventral (bottom) of brain - Below sylvian fissure o The primary area (4
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