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Lecture 4

PSYB65- Lecture 4.docx

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Ted Petit

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PSYB65- Lecture 4  In the membrane of the neuron, there are pores referred to as ion channels; when the neuron is stimulated, these ion channels open up and allow sodium (positively charged) inside of the cell; normally the electrical charge inside of the neuron, is sitting at a negative charge, but as more and more sodium comes, then it becomes more and more positive; charge goes up and down, but when too much sodium comes in, you reach a threshold which opens up all the pores in the immediate vicinity and becomes extremely positive (causes a very large spike); referred to as an action potential; if it is positive inside of the cell, then more pores open up inside of the cell allowing more to come inside; when action potential gets to the end of the axon, then you come to the contact point between two cells which is referred to as a synapse; inside of the axon terminal are synaptic vesicles which have a chemical in them that transmit information (transmitter substances); space between axon and dendrite is referred to as the synaptic cleft; membrane of the dendrite have ion channels as well, and they are associated with its receptors  Step number one, there has to be a system for synthesis; step number two, transmitters have to be stored inside of the synaptic vesicles; there are chemicals that keep them from being packaged; whenever there is an action potential, the transmitter substance has to be released; there are drugs that can interfere (either facilitate or prevent release) with the system at this point; once its released, it has to interact with the receptor; chemicals developed that also increase or decrease activation with the receptors; there are two ways to inactivate the substances which are to reuptake or degradation  Synthesis- to increase functional activity, you increase synthesis; to decrease functional activity, you decrease synthesis  Packaging- professor does not know any way of increasing packaging; to decrease functional activity, you decrease packaging  Release- to increase functional activity, you increase the amount of it being released; to decrease functional activity, you want to decrease release  Receptor activation- to increase functional activity, you want to administer mimickers which look almost identical to transmitter substances that it can fit into the receptor holes and activates the ion channels; to decrease the functional activity is to use a blocker which is a chemical that looks identical to the transmitter substance that it can sit on the receptor but not quite enough like it to actually activate the receptor  Inactivation- to increase functional activity, you want to reduce inactivation; to decrease functional activity, you want to increase inactivation  I) Monoamines (or referred to also as the biogenic amines)  A. Catecholamines  1. Dopamine (DA)  2. Norepinephrine (NE)  Synthesis: DOPA-> DA-> NE  B. Serotonin (5HT)  Synthesis: 5OHT-> 5HT  II) Acetylcholine (ACH)  Synthesis: Choline + Acetyl CoA-> ACL  Inact. Breakdown  The two catecholamines and serotonin make up the monoamines; norepinephrine and noradrenaline are the same thing; DOPA synthesizes DA, which in turn synthesizes NE; DA, NE, and 5HT are all inactivated by reuptake (recycled); ACh is the primary transmitter at the neuromuscular juncture, used by axons to activate muscles (also used inside of the brain as well); synthesized by choline + acetyl CoA producing ACh; inactivated by being broken down  Parkinson’s disease is fought at the synthesis level by taking DOPA everyday so he has excess amounts of DOPA, and therefore synthesizes excessive amounts of dopamine; Schizophrenia is fought through dopamine receptor blockers, slows down the system  Epilepsy- a repetitive discharge or firing of a hyper-excitable collection (aggreg
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