Class Notes (839,092)
Canada (511,185)
Psychology (7,818)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 4

PSYB65- Lecture 4.docx

3 Pages
80 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Description
PSYB65- Lecture 4  In the membrane of the neuron, there are pores referred to as ion channels; when the neuron is stimulated, these ion channels open up and allow sodium (positively charged) inside of the cell; normally the electrical charge inside of the neuron, is sitting at a negative charge, but as more and more sodium comes, then it becomes more and more positive; charge goes up and down, but when too much sodium comes in, you reach a threshold which opens up all the pores in the immediate vicinity and becomes extremely positive (causes a very large spike); referred to as an action potential; if it is positive inside of the cell, then more pores open up inside of the cell allowing more to come inside; when action potential gets to the end of the axon, then you come to the contact point between two cells which is referred to as a synapse; inside of the axon terminal are synaptic vesicles which have a chemical in them that transmit information (transmitter substances); space between axon and dendrite is referred to as the synaptic cleft; membrane of the dendrite have ion channels as well, and they are associated with its receptors  Step number one, there has to be a system for synthesis; step number two, transmitters have to be stored inside of the synaptic vesicles; there are chemicals that keep them from being packaged; whenever there is an action potential, the transmitter substance has to be released; there are drugs that can interfere (either facilitate or prevent release) with the system at this point; once its released, it has to interact with the receptor; chemicals developed that also increase or decrease activation with the receptors; there are two ways to inactivate the substances which are to reuptake or degradation  Synthesis- to increase functional activity, you increase synthesis; to decrease functional activity, you decrease synthesis  Packaging- professor does not know any way of increasing packaging; to decrease functional activity, you decrease packaging  Release- to increase functional activity, you increase the amount of it being released; to decrease functional activity, you want to decrease release  Receptor activation- to increase functional activity, you want to administer mimickers which look almost identical to transmitter substances that it can fit into the receptor holes and activates the ion channels; to decrease the functional activity is to use a blocker which is a chemical that looks identical to the transmitter substance that it can sit on the receptor but not quite enough like it to actually activate the receptor  Inactivation- to increase functional activity, you want to reduce inactivation; to decrease functional activity, you want to increase inactivation  I) Monoamines (or referred to also as the biogenic amines)  A. Catecholamines  1. Dopamine (DA)  2. Norepinephrine (NE)  Synthesis: DOPA-> DA-> NE  B. Serotonin (5HT)  Synthesis: 5OHT-> 5HT  II) Acetylcholine (ACH)  Synthesis: Choline + Acetyl CoA-> ACL  Inact. Breakdown  The two catecholamines and serotonin make up the monoamines; norepinephrine and noradrenaline are the same thing; DOPA synthesizes DA, which in turn synthesizes NE; DA, NE, and 5HT are all inactivated by reuptake (recycled); ACh is the primary transmitter at the neuromuscular juncture, used by axons to activate muscles (also used inside of the brain as well); synthesized by choline + acetyl CoA producing ACh; inactivated by being broken down  Parkinson’s disease is fought at the synthesis level by taking DOPA everyday so he has excess amounts of DOPA, and therefore synthesizes excessive amounts of dopamine; Schizophrenia is fought through dopamine receptor blockers, slows down the system  Epilepsy- a repetitive discharge or firing of a hyper-excitable collection (aggreg
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit