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Lecture 10

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Lecture 10 Frontal Lobe Damage - posterior portion deals w primary motor strip, most anterior portion deals w higher order cog function, planning and socially appropriate behaviour - in Alz disease frontal lobe is one of the areas hit the hardest Frontal lobotomy history: - Gall talked about phrenology – areas drawn onto the skull => prefrontal area thought to be responsible for intellectual function (looking at humans and other primates) => ppl w big foreheads thought to be smarter - in 1930s Jacobson decided to test this theory in monkeys – trained a group and tested in higher order learning using cog/intelligence tests => frontal lobotomies (removal of prefrontal areas) done - found a loss of delayed response capabilities following surgery => couldn’t perform if there was a delay bw seeing a solution to a problem and being able to form the solution - in the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA) monkeys couldn’t respond to picking out the treat out of a cup if there was a delay bw cup presentation and allowing the monkey to pick - become incapable of using a tool to reach a banana, bc if delay to go over and grab the tool the monkey forgets why it was going for it in the first place => thought there was a general loss of short term memory - if animal was left in the dark or given a sedative, eg barbiturate, animal can solve the problem => problem not in memory but in the distraction or emotionality - animals also had problems in alternation – learning to alternate responses; can’t switch behaviour when its not appropriate - observed 1 specific monkey – would got frustrated and upset/temper when being tested => after lobotomy the monkey was very calm, and willing to participate in the tests - Moniz suggested using this procedure on Sch patients to calm them down => started performing the surgery in psychotic patients => used a leukotome to cut the prefrontal portion off, also went through the eye sockets w needles - reported on initial 20 patients – all survived the surgery, 7 had recovered, 7 had improved - continued to perform the surgeries until 1944 – was shot by one of his frontal lobotomy patients and paralyzed - Freeman and Watts brought the surgery to NA, and performed on 3500 patients - in US alone 40 000 operations of frontal lobotomy - scar tissue bc large slice through the brain => results in epilepsy and seizures => 18% developed seizures within a 10 year period; in 1950s surgery began to decline, bc drugs were developed to treat sch and depression => less need for the dramatic frontal lobotomy alternatives Frontal lobe syndrome: - normal IQ test scores – no effect on intelligence - problems in changing behaviour/alternation when its inappropriate – tested by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) => symbols of the cards that can be sorted by different categories, patients asked to sort by one category then made to change the strategy for category of sorting => patients unable to change strategies, keep trying to sort w the old strategy - dissociation bw verbal and motor behaviours – can explain the proper instructions verbally but there’s a motor dissociation to what they should actually do => start to mimic the behaviour of the examiner rather than following the proper instructions - problems w inhibition of inappropriate behaviour, can’t follow the rules in games etc - can tell what the rules are, know the behaviours are
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