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Lecture

PSYC14 Lec 5 - near verbatim

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC14H3
Professor
Michelle
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYC14 Lecture 5: PY Date: Lecture 5: Mon 11-12 and other parts of the day Slide 3: Culture, Emotion and the Body 1) What is emotion? o Working def; elements of emotion 2) Universal Aspects of Emotions 3) Cultural Specificity and Emotions o Culture specifics related to emotions 4) Health, culture and the Digital Age o How digital culture may or may not have transformed culture as we know it? Slide 4: Emotion as defined by our textbook.. A transient, neurophysiological reaction to events that have consequences for our welfare, and require an immediate behavioral response. An emotion includes feelings, but also physiological reactions, expressive behaviors, behavioral intentions and cognitive changes Emphasis: o These definitions assume that emotions are signals to us; signals that tell us whether things happening in the world around us are good or bad o Emotions are signals that tell us whether our goals are in jeopardy or whether were in the right track heading towards them o Emotion are treated as being partly cognitive; thinking and also your goal orientations Emotions have a cognitive component related to the goals that youre striving for o Emotions are also treated as partly bodily its about whats going on inside you physiologically emotions inspire in us physical sensations like racing heart; they are also expressed thru gesture and facial expression and vocalizations o Feel emotions in the body and we use our body to express how we feel Summary: this definition is functional and action-oriented theres an emphasis on the actions that were going to take in response to emotions that we feel given the situations that were in There are basic emotions that arise, triggered from external events they relate to the basic needs that we have about our evolution and heritage This definition based on basic (7) emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, contempt, surprise, disgust Theres also an emphasis on the positive and negative aspects of emotion; whether things are good or bad for us subtle kind of definition compared to other treatments of emotion Picture: o Its not about the subtlety of the emotion; is this GOOD or BAD for the dog? o So the dog has to decide what hes going to do: fight or flee evolutionarily wired in concern 1 PSYC14 Lecture 5: PY Date: o Emotion signals to the dog that theres something amidst in the enviro and leads thru to an action sequence thats going to take care of the dogs need to survive So, is this an adequate definition? This action-approach to emotions; argue that its not o If were going to talk about diversity in emotional experience, then we need broader definition An action-oriented fxnl approach to emotion would say that sadness is the opposite of happiness; this isnt enough it isnt capturing the diversity of what it is to be sad (the sadness that you feel when you lose someone is diff from the sadness that you feel when youre homesick or the sadness you feel when empathizing w/ character on TV vs. the sadness that you feel from the suffering in your own life) need a broader definition one thats denied to us if we use this action-approach Need a def that is able to capture the diversity of emotional experiences in individual lives but also when you think of culture broadly Slide 5: Broader definition of emotion Suggests that emotions arent actually so clear-cut there arent just 7 of them Emotions arent always about underlying physiological needs of the body Emotions dont always answer to the evolutionarily wired in patterns that you think drive us in life; its not always about basic needs; emotions are much more complex than the original definition lets on o Diff shades of emotion within the same category (ex: so many types of sadness) o There are diff ways of coping and there are diff experiences but are summed up under same label o Kinesthetic emotions, humor these dont speak to the evolutionary needs that we have how do you explain these using action approach? not easily o We have emotions that are contradictory (this isnt the most pleasant movie but you appreciate it; you get emotions that are rich but at the same time, unsettling) how would an action approach trying to explain evolutionary goals be able to predict these types of experiences? CANT Emotions are also not just wired in responses (sometimes they are: ex) see something that scares you and its an instinctive response this is what the action oriented approach says happens all the time) o But sometimes, we are authors of our experiences (ex: in a bad mood, and you put on a comedy actively trying to change the mood) o The action-approach doesnt capture this deliberate changing of emotions need broader definition We also need better understanding of how emotions take place Slide 6: 1) Look at the world around us there are events that happen (ex: losing a job) 2) Perception (ex: recognize that youve lost your job) 2 PSYC14 Lecture 5: PY Date: 3) Appraise the facts about the event in context of the goals that you have 4) Its the appraisal thats going to determine the emotion that youre actually going to feel (ex: lost job but you hated job feel emotions of relief, happiness; kind of diff emotion than whats expected) 5) Action look for new job, send letter to colleagues Culture can act on us when were experiencing things in the world and appraising them, feeling emotions and expressing how we feel Each stage in this model can be impacted by culture Slide 7: Dimension of Emotion 1) Valence we have +ve, -ve and neutral experiences in life and therefore can have +ve, -ve and neutral emotions 2) Type if we take the +ve emotion category there are many diff types of +ve emotions (happiness, surprise); can say something about ve category (sad, angry, guilt, disgust) a. Type breaks down valence? 3) Intensity a. Some emotions are overwhelming and you focus on it b. Other emotions are subtle c. How salient and emotional experience is 4) Activity this is about the subjective experience that you would have when youre experiencing an emotion a. Are you feeling as though you are in control or out of control of that emotion i. Put on comedy to change mood will do the job- youre in control of the emotional experience b. Activity = sense of control of your emotional experience These dimensions are true of all cultures universal aspects of emotion Slide 8: Universality of Emotion 1) Emotionality o In all cultures, there are emotions o Emotions are experienced no matter the background or experience 2) Dimensionality o Last slide o Emotional dimensions are same for each culture o Every culture experiences positive and negative emotions o Everyone experiences diff TYPES of positive emotion etc; o Everyone experiences weak and strong emotions depends on context o Everyone at times feels that theyre out of control of their emotions or they may be in complete control of emotions 3) Core Emotions 3
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