Lecture 6: How do emotions pertain to the body.
1. Emotions and body action.
2. Emotions and bodily feelings.
1. motions and body action.
Emotion brings about reflexive body action.
Once induced by emotion, reflex actions:
a. Mediates between organism and environment.
b. Functions according to principle of selfpreservation.
c. Automatic. i.e.: see a snake and immediately jumps back, this can’t be inhibited.
Harvey Carr: emotion calls for deliberate action.
“Emotional reactions are awakened when organism is unable to respond in an orderly and efficient fashion to a highly stimulating
*Emotion signals failure of instinct or presence of novelty. (instinct failed, so emotion help you plan in conscious ways, or when no
instinct is available to help in novel situations).
How is emotion adaptive: Energy that can be discharged by the body, something that tends to “awaken a vigorous appropriate
adjustment”. Alert you about the problem, energize you to engage in problem solving.
John B. Watson: Pattern theory of emotion.
“An emotion is a hereditary patternreaction involving changes of bodily mechanism as a whole, but particularly of the visceral and
Emotions: instinctive unconditional responses to environmental stimuli. Ex. Fear is not learned., sadness for the loss of a loved one is
not learned or conditioned. Rage as well.
Twopart bodily response: organs, autonomic nervous system.
Adds: Emotions can be swayed by conditioning. Ex. Increase/decrease emotion, desensitization.
Ex: Women who likes chocolate. Unconditioned stimulus (chocolate), unconditioned response (Liking), if shock them, liking will
Clearly: Emotion helps aid in selfpreservation.
heuristics for adaptive behavior (don’t overthink the situation, run when see bear)
Leads to appraisal of good vs. bad (appropriate action, analyze if on the right course. If actions support our goal, feel positive emotion.
If not, negative emotion.)
Aid in maintenance of homeostasis (maintain physiological stability, ensure feeding, warm, deliberately think what to do).
But: Emotions may also hinder. Ex: YerkesDodson Law.
Peak performance at moderate arousal/stress.
2. Emotions and bodily feelings.
Emotions can cause, facilitate, interfere w/ bodily action.
Emotions also associated with bodily sensations: cause & caused by bodily sensations.
Emotion Sensation Disgust noxious
Fear/ anger Increase heart rate
Emotion caused by sensation: pain due to hunger, thirst ▯ cause depression, anxiety, anger.
Convention view: EVENT EMOTON BODILY CHAGE + ACTION.
For James: EVENT ▯ BODILY CHANGE + ACTION ▯ EMOTION. (We feel sorry cause we cried, afraid cause we tremble).
**Facial expression lecture: Tomken—actions of muscles in face create emotion. Movement from limbs, tension of body and facial
muscles create emotion.
Ex: See a bear…
Convention: fear ▯ run.
James: run ▯ fear (because I ran away, I must be afraid).
Ex: Do you like pickles?
C: Think about pickle ▯+Emotion (I like it) ▯get a pickle (action).
J: Think about pickle ▯I ate one yesterday (Think about action) ▯+E (therefore I must like it).
Gregorio Maranon & W.B. Cannon
Maranon inspired Cannon’s critique of James: What happens when inject people with adrenaline. (induce bodily change will lead to
emotion? Since James proposed that bodily changes induced emotion). i▯ nject people with adrenaline.
▯ drenaline increase sympathetic activity, James would assume a change in emotion.
Firstdegree reaction 79%. (en froid, somatic disturbance) Seconddegree reaction. 21%
Bodily changes Awareness of bodily arousal, awareness about autonomic nervous Same as first degree reaction
Felt the symptoms and know they are symptoms of a fear
Emotion changes Incomplete emotion. E.g., as if I were frightened, however, I am Felt entire emotion.
*The 21% mistaken arousal for emotion because they have a psychological motif, superimposed on the autonomic reaction. (Stress in
life: lost a family member, lost job..).
• Neither findings supported James’ theory.
Maranon’s twofactor theory of emotion.
In correspondence with findings, emotion is comprised of:
1. Bodily component (l’émotion végétative)
2. Psychological component. (l’émotion psychique)
Copresence of both enables a complete affective state. *Preferably, psychological before bodily.
Cannon’s official critique of James (recall James: autonomic specificity for emotion, can distinguish emotions by looking at different
style of activations in the body).
1. Same bodily changes accompany different emotions. Ex: general arousal response.
Ex: fear, anger, sexual desire… all show increase in sympathetic activation, hrate, Adh.
2. Autonomic changes are incremental.
Very small, can’t be the reason for emotion states.
Ex: difference in ANS activation between calm state and feeling furious is only a few extra heart beat/min.
3. Autonomic changes are too slow.
Feel emotion before body catches up. The immediate flush of fear is instantaneously, bodily changes take place at about 1530s after
emotion is felt.
Autonomic changes for nonemotional experiences. Ex: jogging.
4. 5. We are often insensitive to changes of ANS. Ex: monitoring heart rate can be difficult.
………. In accordance with this critique, the two factor theory. (Formalized by Schachter & Singer):
Bodily arousal + Appraisal.
How arousal is appraised:
Schachter inspired by Festinger’s notion of evaluative needs… (how people explain their bodily feelings).
1. Based on previous knowledge about the situation. Ex: gunshot. If in dark alley = fear, in race field = excitement.
2. Social comparison (when in novel situations). What do I do? Look at what others are doing.
Classic study by Schachter & Singer:
Manipulated state of arousal experimentally (saline vs. epinephrine= dry mouth, increase hear rate, trembles… it’s an adrenaline).
Manipulate extent of explanation of bodily state, tells you:
a. Very detail of what symptoms