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Emotions Chapter 9Emotions in Social RelationshipsSocial goals and social emotionsRobert Louis Stevensons 1886 o He created a story that says that human beings are mixtures of good and evil For many theorists there are two fundamental dimensions to human social life that provide two coordinateso Love and strife strifepower Freud saw life in terms of sexuality and death humankinds creative and destructive tendencies More recently theorists speak of cooperation affiliation and prosocial behavior on the one hand and competition dominance and antisocial behavior on the other The two aspects have been found in studies ofo child developmentlove and control o anthropologyintimacy and superordinationsubordinationo semantic analysesevaluation goodness and potency What sets primates especially from humans apart from other species is the capacity for kindnesso Ex Tibetan Buddhism minks practice the cultivation of compassion The conviction is that when the mind is rid of desire one discovers the compassionate core of human natureo Dalai Lama at the most fundamental level our nature is compassionate and cooperation not conflict lies at the heart of the basic principles that govern our human existence At the same time in the history of Western thought anger aggression and revenge have been seen as unavoidable aspects of human charactero Ex Stoics saw anger as the most essential to master o For Buddhist anger is a destructive emotion Lorenz 1967 argued that aggression is an innate drive like hunger and that human culture is in peril aggression threatens to run out of control bc technology and bureaucracy hold back humans from reconciliation and peace making Ardrey 1966 speculated about a territorial imperative that we are programmed for aggression in defense of territories ranging from a seat on the bus to a nationKonrad LorenzHe is remembered for the geese who followed him He married a physician so he got a professorship but then had to go to the army as a doctor Wasa prisoner of war comp he ate insects and spiders to keep healthy He received a Nobel Prize When Hitler came into power Lorenz went along with the Nazis He wrote an article in which he proposed that people who had been overdomesticated should be eliminated as an act of public healthhe regretted thisThree kinds of social motivation attachment affiliation and assertion Emotions most typically arise with evaluations of events in relation to goals Attachmentits function is primarily that of protection and care for the immature infant The infant and caregiver cooperate to allow the infant to thrive in an environment that contains dangers Affiliationwarmth May cal it affectiono Affectionfeeling of warmth and cooperativeness toward another persono It contributes to parenting and more generally it draws individuals together even when they are not genetically relatedo Ex May be seen in mutual grooming of chimps In humans romantic love Assertionis the motivation to rise in the social hierarchy and to resist challenges from those who would diminish uso It is the motivation of competition and conflict The three social motivations are pervasive across contexts and cultures and sufficiently important in human life that they deserve to be emphasizedAttachment and its separation from affiliation
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