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Lecture 4

PSYC21 - Lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Carly Prusky

PSYC21 – Lecture 4 Prof’s Speech - Purple Library - Kate Johnson – [email protected] - Slide 2 – Attachment - A strong emotional bond that forms between infant and caregiver in the second half of the child’s first year - The development of attachment relationships is a major achievement in the infant’s early social life - Infants form attachment to the important people in their lives - Attachment marks the beginning of a child’s social life - Attachment is a key element of social development, as highlighted in the media through various movies (i.e. Rabbit-proof fence, I am Sam, Martian Child) Slide 6 – Attachment - Attachments in young children are characterized by the following features: o Selective o Physical proximity seeking  Effort to maintain closeness to objects of attachment o Comfort and security  Achieving proximity to attachment objects o Separation distress  When an attachment tie is severed, a child is distressed  An attachment object acts as a safe haven that a child can return to in cases of uncertainty and danger Slide 7 – Theories of Attachment - Both of these theories are based on moms, as well as oral stimulation - Psychoanalytic Theory o Infants become attached to their mother because they associate her with gratification of their instinctual drive to obtain pleasure through sucking and oral stimulation - Learning Theory o Drive-reduction learning theorists suggested that the mother becomes an attachment object because she is associated with the reduction of the baby’s primary drive of hunger Slide 8 – Marlow’s Monkeys - Baby monkey research - Cloth mom vs. wire mom - Babies prefer cloth mom especially in moments of stress even though no food was provided by the cloth mom (wire mom had the food) Slide 9 – Theories of Attachment - Learning Theory o Operant conditioning  Attachment development based on visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation that infants receive from their caregivers  Same as instrumental conditioning  Parents are the most reliable sources of these stimulations o Central point: attachment is not automatic; it develops over time as a result of satisfying interactions with responsive adults  Attachment is not automatic, it develops from being responsive and warm - Before infants can develop attachment, they have to differentiate between mom and strangers o They are able to differentiate mom through smell o They also need to know that mom still exists when they cannot see her (object permanence) - According to Piaget – object permanence develops in the sensorimotor stage Slide 11 - Table 4.1 - Bowlby – studied signalling behaviours of infant human attachment o Children view parent as secure base than they can retreat to for reassurance while exploring o 3 features of attachment  Active role played by child’s signalling  Mutual attachment  Dyadic relationship - How attachment develops o First step – distinguishing between familiar and unfamiliar people o Joyous when reunited with attachment figures o Distressed when separated from attachment figures o Infants can form attachments to fathers, siblings, grandparents, etc. Slide 13 – Special Role of Fathers - Playmate o Spend four to five times more time playing with their infants than caring for them o Engage in more physically arousing and unusual games, especially with their sons Slide 14 – Temperament - Irritable newborns are more likely to develop insecure attachment - But, links are probably moderated by other factors o Support for parents o Professional intervention - Babies’ temperament may play a role in attachment, but in conjunction with parent behaviour/reactions to the child Slide 15 - Table 4.2 – The Strange Situation - Ainsworth o Child interacts with mom, separate, reunite o Video:  Places the child under stress  14 month old baby, strange adult enters the room, attempts to interact with the baby  Mom leaves the room, baby crawls after mom, stranger tries to comfort the child  Mom comes back, baby calms down  Example of secure attachment o Secure  Type B  60-65% of infants  Distant when separated from mom  Calm and soothed when returns  Easily comforted by mom  Use mom as a secure base o Insecure-avoidant  Type A  Indifferent to mom’s departure  Don’t notice when mom returns; mom is avoided on return  Shows very little distress o Insecure-ambivalent  Type C  High levels of stress on separation  Ambivalent on return  Seek contact from mom and then push her away on return o Disorganized  Type D  Unable to cope with stress in organized way when mom is availabl
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