Class Notes (839,469)
Canada (511,354)
Sociology (2,434)
SOCA02H3 (398)
Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Mar. 21.docx

4 Pages
59 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Ivanka Knezevic

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Description
Space and society - The relationship between spatial form and social structures is the main underlying question of urban sociology. It is reciprocal: - Influence of space on social relations is assumed in urban planning. Main characteristics: materiality (form, density, size) and centrality. - Influence of society on spatial forms: social structures and agency produce accommodating spatial forms (e.g. industrial city). - Much urban-sociological research does not really consider space: space may be incidental to research on both “the city in society” and the “society in the city.” Cities and their surrounding areas - Cities are relatively large, densely populated, permanent settlements in which most residents do not produce their own food. - Cities depend on the surrounding areas, initially for food, then for market demand for manufactured goods, and finally for labour. - Conflicts of interest between cities and surrounding areas (now including suburbs: 416 vs. 905). - Migration of the middle and upper class out of central cities in North America after WWII means loss of city tax base; city services are funded by municipal taxes, but are used by residents of a much wider area, including the recently- moved middle and upper class. - Economic factors and political decisions influence urbanization: growth in the proportion of the population living in cities. Explaining the rural and the urban – Toennies - Gemeinschaft = opportunity 1. Familiarity with all members 2. Homogeneity of members; high conformity 3. Informal social control - Gesellschaft 1. Presence of strangers 2. Heterogeneity of members; diversity of norms 3. Formal social control 1 Explaining the urban – Simmel 1. Achievement of individualism (personal freedom and development of individuality) in a Gesellschaft. - Cf. Guay and Hamel: individualization of social relationships in post-modern city. 2. Intellectualism/rationality 3. “Blasé attitude” 4. Reserve - Causes: heterogeneity and rapid change, and money economy. - This is “urbanism as a way of life” (Wirth. 1938) or “urban culture.” - Blalock. 1967: “middleman minorities” in pre-industrial trading centres. The industrial city - Pre-industrial cities were either political/administrative or trading centres. - Industrial cities grew because of : 1. Advances in transportation (steam power, which enabled growth of trading market) and agricultural technology (land drainage, fertilizers, which produced surplus agricultural population); 2. Improved means of accumulating capital (the joint stock company); and 3. Industrialization (requirement that workers be concentrated in a central location). - Consequences: economies of scale and facilitation of capitalist market economy. - Problems: sanitation, transportation, housing. The Chicago School: a model of an immigrant city - Park and his colleagues studied “social pathologies” – crime, mental illness, juvenile delinquency, family breakdown, etc. anonymous urban life destroys the
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit