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Lecture 10

SOCA03H3 - Lecture 10.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

SOCA03H3 – Week 10 Population Determinants - Fertility - Mortality - Demographic Transition Theory - Birth rate stays the same o People are having a lot of kids  Kids dying at early age, so they continue to have kids o Agricultural purposes  Help around the farm at a young age. • They can get a lot of work done. o Kids don’t produce economic wealth.  They cost money - Death rate falls quickly. o Lack of food o Cleanliness o Medicine nd 2 Population Explosion - Post WWII in the “South” o Peaks in 1970s o Lead to predictions of 16 billion or more. Two Population Problems - North o Aging populations  Consequences o Japan  Replaces humans with robots • Lack in population - South o Malthusian Scenarios  Unsustainable growth • Worry about o Youth o Arab Spring South: Surprise Reversal - Population growth starts to decline in late 1970s o Fertility rate drops from 6 to 4 in two decades. Political Agenda - Population on and off the agenda. - 1960s moral panic o Limits to growth o Population bomb  Paul Ehrlich predicts starvation Population Impact Formula - Size x affluence x technology o Size  effect of sheer numbers o Affluence  use more o Technology  environmentally friendly Population Controls - China’s one child policy o Highly coercive  Unintended consequences UN Best Family Planning In… - Iran o From 7 to 2 kids per woman (fastest ever) o War with Iraq foster births o Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeni (1980s)  Allowed contraceptives  Compulsory pre-,marital classes  Educating girls • Unintentional? Population Driven Conflicts - Lyndon Johnson o “There are three billion people in the world. They want what we have.” Part 2: Cities Urban Themes - Tensions o City vs. Countryside - Are “alive” o Constantly changing o Competition for space (rich vs. poor) - Polarized view o Anonymous vs Exciting - Rich is better Cities - Cities are relatively large, densely populated, permanent settlements in which most residents do not produce their own food. - Implication: o Conflict with countryside
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