Growth is a core feature of our cultural system and it started from the environmental movement. Some
ppl call it the misanthropy. Environmentalists agree upon the free trade growth & that science will make
our lives better. These ideals are called logic of growth. Logic of growth is part of our heritable culture; it
is optimistic view of the world & faith. It gives reasons and progress. If we are faced with problems, then
the logic of growth tells us that we can come overcome it (we have done it in the past and we can do it
till date). logic of growth says if we over populate the world, we can solve that too, cuz we can grow
more food. Itz called the green revolution. Famine is the things of past. If we exhaust raw materials then
we can come up with substitute raw materials. Optimism is opposed by the limits of growth ppl. A royal
crisis in 1970’s the market responded with several innovations. With that crisis, market also came up
with high tech pollution devices EX: cars todays don’t pollute nearly as much they use too. Hybrid cars
are introduce to limit CO2 emissions. Other examples include GM- solar car – cevy gold – etc . Optimism
supported by numerous new technologies developed in response to oil shocks in 1970. Market
responded with several innovations. They also come up with many ways to cut down pollution-e.g. cars
that cause less pollution, recycling , environmentally friendly refrigerators, hydrocars – cevy gold are few
ways we can elimination CO2 emission. Limits of growth ppl distrust the logic of growth (Its Malthusian
argument). limits of growth ppl are Malthusian Pessimists. Malthusim pesamism – malthusim was an
English who said planet is finite while population can be infinite . Clean air, water will be exploited if pop
keep increasing. Global resources are finite. Growth must have limits. So ever since 1972, these pple are
talking about catastrophe that can be caused by pop. Old book like famine 2000 was published, but in
century 21 food turns out to be abundant. After 1970, environmentalist went in new direction and
acquired religious element and became hostile to material affluence (a preoccupation with wealth). The
medieval church - it says preoccupation with material world is a deadly sin, its called the deadly sin of
avarice. Medieval church – mount similar argument preoccupation with wealth is sin of abors butso.
They believe in apoplypse if we don’t mend our evil ways. Human are seen as sinner for ruining the
planet that we live in. This causes us to take a look at Gaia. Gaia – god of modern environments - comes
from book of james lublock “ a new look at life” . Another book called book of nymns to gia. Ricka – an
environmental religion; fastest growing in US. James loblock argues earth is a super sentient (earth can
perceive “itself live & has power of perception, can feel, experience, also has a conscious & a self
awareness”) . This is reminiscent of nature worship that we find among many tribal pple of past, where
nature is safer. In environmental movement, “deep psychology” means creation spiritutality . Religion
driven organization include earth first, green peace, earth liberation front , peta, world wildlife fund,
sierra club, nature conservancy. US is full of these organizations. Gaia tells us that a prophet is going to
emerge known as “algor”. In Christianity, there is misanthropism ( means u dislike human beings).
Humans are source of dislike and gaia is sad. This misanthropism is running through environmentalism.
E.g lublock calls human a “pest” species. Gaia is a spiritual goddess (teacher) that sustains all lives.
Humans are a cancer (by lublock). Gaia is not gonna put up with these pests and cancer, these numbers
have to called. US is full of gaias. US nations did a global diversity assessment- says two religions in the
world that are damaging include Islam and Christianity. Morris strong & organization “club of Rome”-
both were modern environmentalists started in 1970; main argument by them was sustainability, this is
again a gaian principle. They only hope for industrial civilization collapse. Humans are nasty creatures according to Jacques Cousteau - “We are buying too much; our carbon footprint is too large”. Deep
ecology – modern environmental org of 1987 created conflict in Africa and many Ethiopians starve to
death. Foreman says that let them starve; nature will find its balance. Racial Carson wrote a book called
silence spring she argue use of DDT pesticide would have silence the spring (kills the birds & human).
But its use was ceased all over the world except India. DDT is most potent killer of mosquitoes (thus kept
in India). In Africa, DDT was taken out, thus mosquito came with full force & million died. You should see
the sovereign side to this Environmentalism. Donella Meadows, Limits of Growth, 1972- by Malthusian
club of rome – made argument that pop bomb of pple is going to destroy the planet. We have to find
ways to control pop growth; we have to come up with sustainability program. Disposable society was
part of this. It is based on fact that pple in develop societies consume too much. When we consume a
lot, we dispose a lot. These days there is excess packaging, cardboard, paper, plastic, etc & we throw it
away. Disposability is found in beverage industry (beer, wine, liquor, aluminum cans, batteries, light
bulbs, razers, automobiles). There is always a cost to a product. Waste is another problem of disposable
society. The waste end up in landfills. Pple say that we are running out of landfills. These landfills don’t
decompose stuff like tires, diapers etc ; this brought in advantage of recycling. Wealth in society has lead
to many recycling programs ; they tend to be expensive (not economical to recycle) but gov take money
out of taxes to cover for recycling.
Ocean, lakes , stream all part of global ecosystem. Water is used for irrigation, cooking, drinking ,
recreation and industrial purpose. Water goes through hydrological cycle – earth recycling water. Sun
heats the ocean -> water evaporate-> clouds->rain. Water evaporates at lower temperature and it is
usually pure. Water supply is being imp in all societies. Some have water rights e.g. ancient china, rome ,
Greece (these were part of the law). These were irrigation societies so they controlled supply of water.
Irrigation agriculture – was never big in west. In west, there was rainfall irrigation. State has no control
over it. Today water supply in Middle East is becoming critical. Ex technology that is coming to rescue is
desalinization plant (build part of south Asia for water supply). Environmentalists are against these
desalinization plants. We are using more and more water as pop goes up 4 times. More pple require
more water. Underwater lakes –E.g aquifer in Tamil Nadu (region in India) has a lot of water pumped up.
Water levels has fallen down there. Household of the world use 10% of global water. Industrial use is
25%. The rest of the water goes for agriculture – 2/3 of the total amount of water is consumed by globe.
New irrigation technologies are being developed e.g. technologies that seep water from the ground and
feed to plant. Green revolution – use of genetically engineered seeds e.g in Canada, a new strain of
wheat that grows in Saskatawan was discovered. Same thing is done is china and India with rice.
Genetically engineered rice production has been increasing. Both countries are pretty much food
independent. Today environmentalists stand on green revolution and are against genetically modified
seeds. Argument made by environmentalist is that these seeds might be dangerous; until we are
completely sure that they are not injurious (so far no evidence) we should not be using them. Water
supply in US Aquifer Ogallala in south de coda is falling in recent decade. In Canada, we have abundance
of water. Canada is forbidden to export water. Law says that if we ever export water to US, according to
NAFTA says we won’t be able to stop. Canada is very careful in not exporting water to US. Water is a major problem to population in places e.g Mexico City , Cairo, Shanghai. Pple there drink contaminated
water. Mexico is fallen apart bcz of drug kartel there. In old days when u go to Mexico, u never drink the
water. These cities are in developing or under developed parts of the world. Contaminated water
produced typhoid, cholera, dysentery. These are caused by micro-organisms- usually present in fecal
matter (human excretes). In developed country like Canada, we have clean water bcz we have enough
wealth to purify our water. This began in 19 century when public health system try to build sewers.
Wealth is not inconsistent with clean environment. The wealthiest countries have cleanest water in the
world. This is opp to Gaine believe that wealth is destroying us. Gaian today worries about use of
pesticides and other kind of toxic waste that are used as agriculture fertilizer. Then began the use of
organic food (they are expensive). They are grown without use of chemical fertilizers. In Germany, few
months ago, pple died from salmonella poisoning that were grown in organic farm ; thus organic food is
not always safe. The argument is that these plants cause carcinogen (cause cancer). Cigarettes are
carcinogenic as well. Water polluti