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Lecture

LECTURE NOTES OCTOBER 4 2012

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCB05H3
Professor
Rania Salem
Semester
Fall

Description
OCTOBER 4 2012  Idiographic explanation – what are all the factors that may have caused the phenomenon of interest  Nomothetic explanation – what are the most important factors that caused the phenomenon of interest  Establishing casual relationship: correlation o An empirical relationship between two variables where:  Changes in one variable are associated with changes in the other  Particular attricutes of one variable are associated with particular attributes of the other  Eg. Hours spent studying and GPA of students. Gather data through the survey. And observe the statistic variables. And plot in charts  “ “ temoral ordering o The cause must precede the effect in time, not vice versa  Some attributes are fixed at birth, so the cause-effect sequence is easy to establish  With other variables, it is difficult to determine temporal ordering  “ “ non-spuriousness o Spurious relationship = a correlataion between two variables that is actually caused by a third variables that is actually caused by a third variable  Necessary and sufficeient causes o Necessary cause – a condition that must be present for the effect to follow o Sufficient cause – a condition that guarantees the effect  Units of analysis and the ecological fallacy o Ecological fallacy = relationship between attributes of groups or geographic areas are used to make inferences about the individual behaviours of the people within those groups or areas o Be sure to carefully determine what units you want to draw conclusions about, then make sure your data pertain to those units  Types of survey design: cross-sectional studies
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