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Lecture 8

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Julian Tanner

October 30, 2012 Lecture 8 SOCB26: WEEK 8 Inequality among Students’ Gender:  It used to be the case that girls were less likely to attend university than boys not any more th - Beginning 20 century, females are more likely than males - Statistics: reveal that in that year women were 60%  How might we explain this turnaround? What factors influenced this* 1) Feminist movements: securing some measure of equality of opportunity among females and males -increased expectations, encouraged women to be more secure in their occupational path -feminism has bought an ambition for women -moreover, more jobs are available to women requiring higher education -encourages them to attend higher studies 2) The Job/labour market has transformed -women have started to enter professions equal to -in recent past, before 1960s relatively fewer women were in medicine, pharmacists occupations which required minimum university and professional degree 3) Historically women have tended to enter specific number of occupations (traditional occupations of women) : teaching, social work , nursing occupations have required higher credentials/ raised for requirements. 4) More females in universities is a reflection of the fact that it is more the case that male enter blue –collar occupations which usually don’t require university degree * Stats table: 1961, 1962 : no more than 25% of undergraduate population comprised of females, some universities with 0 female students. Majority of females enrolled in humanities and arts, less in math and technology. -Now, over 75% are female -More women are concerned about the equal opportunities in universities and jobs, however it is still not achieved yet! -A reason why female students may find male peers in better jobs because of the type of field, due to the choices they make in universities -The earnings of becoming a teacher, Sociology/ English major are a lot less compared to their male counterparts who study Engineering in UofT Race and ethnicity and educational attainment: *Statistics table: - The gap between visible and non-visible minorities is wide -87% of young visible minorities Canadians attended university compared to non-visible minorities -among young Canadian, most students attend university - However, within the visible minority groups, there are significant variations in attainment:  Asian students high attainment ( 40% with university degree) October 30, 2012 Lecture 8  Black and Hispanic students have medium attainment (18%)  Aboriginal youth with low attainment (6%)  How might these difference be explained? Three factors. -Asian students tend to do better, because they come from backgrounds which put a high value on education, their families provide great support. This is due to government 1) Socio-economic background of immigrants -the government immigration policies, rendered Asians with having Education qualifications -most Canadian immigrants came from Europe, whom themselves were not significantly educated and did not bring them valuable attributes for education 2) Colonialism Aboriginal youth dropouts, low attainment has been explained through colonial policies in which indigenous groups prejudice in education, and the real guarantee that native groups are not -Residential schools: young native children taken out of their schools and placed in residential groups and treated badly  Can Schools make a difference? Functionalists would say yes, schools can improve and help students from low status background and reduce the gaps between high and low status students. Conflict theorists say that schools amplify, widens the gap -most kids in Canada go to school, so it’s hard to try these experiments  Do differences on test scores get larger or smaller when school’s out for the summer? Researchers have examined what happens to students attainment throughout the school year and summer holiday by comparing test scores, more particularly if functionalists were correct, you would find that when kids were in school there would be a narrow gap between low student and high students performance and when kids were out of school, the performances between students would have a wider gap. Conflict theorists say it’s the other way around -As a result by comparing test scores, they found that the gap between high and low status students attainment widens through the summer like the functionalists predicted -schooling does dissipate some of the inequalities between socio-economic
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