Lecture 8 Reading Notes: Ecology of the City Nov 12. 2012
Pg 160- 168
- Human Ecology, Park viewed as it as an orderly evolution of urban growth and development.
Forces within the limits of urban community
Isolate and to describe the typical constellations of these forces produce
Distinguished from plant and animal ecology
- The evolutionary struggle for survival was evident in the everyday competition for scarce
- Natural Areas: Business districts, ethnic neighborhoods, skid rows and rooming- housing
- Urban competition, not only economic, also about power.
People compete for control of public areas
- Also influenced by large- scale population movements.
Immigrants with limited skills and education, took low- paying jobs, made next
generation the poor groups.
This shifting of population called invasion- succession.
- Park: Competition and population movement shaped and reshaped cities.
- Burgess: Economic competition was central to urban life.
- After emergence of the Chicago School, the sector and multiple nuclei theories addressed the
shortcomings of the Park and Burgess approach.
- Homer Hoyt (1939)
- Major advance over Burgess’s work.
- 1) High- prestige fashionable districts formed sectors of varying size.
- 2) Many sectors took on a pit- shaped form rather than resembling an entire ring.
- 3) Lower- income districts abutted and surrounded fashionable districts.
- 4) A tendency for sectors to move out of the city radially, along a path begun by the sector in
- 5) Later, cities revealed 2 or 3 fashionable areas in different places with factors other than
competition and population movement influencing this process.
- Limited by a focus on residential sectors.
- Hoyt imagined, industry moved outward from the city center upriver or along rail- road
- Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman (1945), as the contemporary city grew, it diversified,
developing many distinct sectors of activity rather than retaining one center.
- Who do multiple nuclei develop? 1) Require certain specialized facilities. (Ex. modern
factories require more floor space) 2) Multiple CBDs can be the result of annexation. (Ex.
Phoenix expanded in the age of the automobile, more time- consuming to travel in the
- Questions the notion that urban land use is predictable at all. Suggests that a mix of
historical, cultural, economic shape and reshape the city. Limitations
- Burgess based his model on Chicago, only some cities are similar. (Moscow, concentric zones
of outwardly declining land use intensity).
- Hoyt, urban expansion along major highways, contributed to the development of suburbia.