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WSTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Richard Starkings

Women's and Gender Studies
Course Code
Victoria Tahmasebi

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Social Construction of Gender
Gender differences are not the product of biological properties
According the Social Constructionist, it is the product of sococial structures and culture
-working progress throughout your life, re-construction and social construction
-5 levels of social construction: Individual (the personal level, identify experiences with gender identity),
Interactional (do with every day interaction, gets gender identity when interacting with others; peers,
parents, messages from others: good, bad)
Institutional Level-3rd level, deal with structural basis of our society,, religion, Economy,
Workplace- historically been masculine insitutation, shaped and controlled by men; Research: gender are
paid/treated differently for the same job
Sociocultural: the universal living that you live in, meaning are produced and are affecting your life/very
material; ex. Guide you to becoming a beautiful women, the body shape-loss weight, become sick…
Global gender order: reflects the reality of our era that is influenced by economic and policies, at this
level we can see that political influence and economic shape gender difference;
How should one think about two seemingly contradictory truth reflected in the these two images?
Women are lower than men
Gender Socialization
Process by Individual, acquires Gender Identity I am this or that, act, think, feel in certain way as
women or men, you are acting either Women or Men
3 Sub Categories: Gender
Appearance- certainty about the world around us; gives a kinds of certainty about the world around us;
Gender Appearance has its power (How?)ex. highly visible female/male;
Behaviour-is a product of social doing; doing gender means that gender behaviour is a achieve status, by
achieve it(working hard); the own doing; the routine, methodic and recurring accomplishment ;
Example: waking up in the morning; no difference between men and women when taking time to get up in
the morning
Doing Gender means that we have work on gender behaviour continuously
Women: bear children; Men: get a job
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