Archaeology Lecture 5 - Cultural Complexity

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18 Apr 2012
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The Archaeology of Complexity: Lecture 5.12/1/2011 4:11:00 PM
Introduction
Organization of Lecture
What is Complex Society
Modeling the Development of Complex Society
What is Complex Society?
Elman Service (1962): Primitive Social Organization.
Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States.
Chiefdoms
Larger than tribes: 5000-20,000 people
Kin-based ranking under hereditary leader.
Economy based on tribute / distribution.
Domestic/non-domestic sites.
Archaeological Example: Catalhoyle.
States (Pre-Industrial)
Larger than chiefdoms: generally 20,000+ people
Class based hierarchy.
Laws, bureaucracy, taxation, standing armies.
Cities
Archeological Example: All Ancient Civilizations.
Archaeological Indicators
Writing
Metallurgy
Predictive sciences. E.g. Astronomy, Mathematics
Large population aggregates.
Occupational specialization.
Monumental architecture
Importantly not all these indicators are present in every single ancient
civilization.
Little evidence got ostentatious display of power in the Indus Valley
civilizations.
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