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ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Fracture Mechanics, Emic And Etic, Industrial Arts

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Christopher Watts

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Archaeology, Lecture 2
November 4, 2010
Analysis and Interpretation
Chapter 3 Readings
something about the circumstances E\ZKLFKWKDWPDWHULDOFDPHWREHWKHUH´3DXO
o Circumstances ± natural and human agencies
Human agencies, people tend to keep the things they want when they
move from site to site. In many cases archaeologists are constructing the
past since they have an incomplete picture. We are products of a certain
time period, socially and politically. It can colour our interpretations.
1) Data Processing
a. Cleaning
b. [Conservation] ± may or may not be necessary; depends on the artifact class.
c. Cataloguing ± itemize everything recovered. To talk more significantly about the
past human lifeways.
2) Data Organization
x Classification ± processes by which we assign items to categories (classes) in a pre-
arranged system.
i. Rules determine whether an item belongs or does not belong to a class.
x Typology ± FODVVLILFDWLRQRIDUWLIDFWµVWDWHV¶EDVHGRn some criterion or criteria. Further
classifying the broad sweep of aritifactual material.
x Question ± were the artifact types we recognize today also recognized in the past? Are
they emic or etic in nature?
Emic ± µLQVLGHVYLHZ¶RIFXOWXUHWKHW\SHZDV recognized by its
manufacturer as meaningful
Etic ± µRXWVLGHU¶VYLHZ¶RIFXOWXUH the type is only meaningful to the
x Artifacts ± which include items made from: stone (lithics), clay (ceramics), metal, bone
(faunal), and plants (e.g., baskets, wooden tools)
x Ecofacts ± which include:
o Faunal remains ± animal bones not used as tools
o Floral remains ± plant materials not used as tools
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