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Lecture

ANT203 November 29.pdf


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT203Y1
Professor
Xueda Song

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Life in the Trees and Social Climbers
Slender Loris
suborder: Strepsirhini
found in Southern India
Diet:
fruit (berries) and insects
Marking territory
drops of urine on trees; also covers its hands in urine for leaving trail of
scent; possibly also a better grip due to stickiness
hunting
stealth; moves very slowly and quietly
Lesser Bush Baby (Galago)
suborder: Strepsirhini
found in Africa
marking territory: scent marking with urine
mode of locomotion: vertical clinging and leaping
whereas Lorises use stealth to hunt, galagos use speed; can jump up to 30x their
body length
Golden Bamboo Lemur
suborder: Strepsirhini
found in Madagascar
dietary adaptations: highly specialized - lives on a part of the bamboo plant - the pith
- that is usually poisonous
eats 12x as much cyanide as would kill another animals
Sifaka:
suborder: strepsirhini
found in Madagascar
eats flowers of spiny plant - Dideria
vertical clinging and leaping in trees (very quick)
long and narrow back feet with huge big toe to lock onto tree trunks
on the ground - because of length of legs, can't run on all fours - instead, jump; but
since there are no trunks to push off from, the jumps are quite short
• Gibbon
Parvorder: Catarrhine
Superfamily: Homonoid
Family: Hylobatid
found in South-East Asia
locomotion:
fastest arboreal primate (jump about as far as a Sifaka, but faster) - can catch
a bird in mid-air
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hand over hand swinging (brachiation); ball and socket wrist joint
most gibbons fracture bones at some point in lives - dangerous locomotion
method
social structure: sexually dichromatic; pair-bonded male and female
Capuchin Monkey
Parvorder: Platyrrhine (NW Monkey)
found in South America
How are certain behaviours (e.g., food preparation, leaf rubbing) learned by
members of this species?
shellfish (clams): slam them against trees until the clam muscle relaxes,
making the shell easy to open
young learn from observation
leaf rubbing:
use piper leaves, which have insect-repelling and antiseptic qualities
rub all over themselves and others - big social behaviour (everyone
joins in)
use most often during the rainy season (when skin infections
are most prevalent)
Uakari:
Parvorder: Platyrrhine (NW Monkey)
found in South America
how is an individual's position in the dominance hierarchy expressed?
the brighter scarlet the face, the more senior the animal in the ranking
The following platyrrhine species also live in South America and are sympatric: uakaris,
saki monkeys, spider monkeys, pygmy marmosets, and owl monkeys (douracoulis). What
are three ways in which these species avoid competition for resources?
uakaris eat unripe fruit
saki have sharp teeth for hard nuts
spider monkeys eat ripe fuit
marmosets eat insects / gum
pygmy marmosets:
very small (smallest monkey in the world) so that it can climb through the
highest part of the canopy
needle-sharp claws prevent slipping
very stealthy moving so that vibration doesn't scare off insects being stalked
staple of diet - tree gum (forces trees to produce it by gnawing on their bark,
creating wounds)
owl monkeys (douracoulis)
eat flowers and nectar
the only nocturnal monkey
can eat at night, when there is no competition from other monkeys
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