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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Ivan Kalmar
Semester
Winter

Description
Anthropology 100 9/13/2012 3:01:00 PM Anthropologists are people who interpreted to people back home what it is that happened in the western world What did they report back home? What people looked like, what was the intellectual culture of the people (what did they build), languages and dialects, habits of the people. Evolutionary anthro: Application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the morphology, ecology, and behavior of human and non human primates. 5 research disciplines in evolutionary anthropology:  primatology: non human primates o primatologists seek to conserve primates in vanishing tropical ecosystems  paleoanthropology: multidisciplinary study of biological evolution and non human primates o advent of and changes in human cultural activities o evolutionary history of behavior in human and non human primates  Human variation: spatial and temporal variations in human features o Ex. Geographic and climatic variations in body size, skin color, and eye color  Medical anthropology:  Forensic anthropology: Linguistic anthropology: Semiotic- having to do with signs  Communication, representation, identity. Social and cultural anthropology: the study of contemporary human society and culture  Cultural ethnography (method of studying and final product of research)  Kinship / gender – most basic way of how people organize themselves socially  Politics / economics  Religion Myth / ritual  Colonization and globalization September 20 , 2012: Evolutionary Anthropology  Goals: o Historical development of biological science o Diversity of life + natural processes produces this diversity o Fundamental c  What is it/ application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the morphology, ecology, and behavior of human and non human primates  5 research disciplines:  primatology o scientific study of non human primates o Primatologists seek to conserve primates in vanishing tropical ecosystems  Paleoanthropology o Study of the biological evolution of human and non human primates o Advent of and changes in human cultural activities o Evolutionary history of behavior in human and non human primates  Human variation o Spatial and temporal variations in human features o Ex. Geographic and climatic variations  Medical Anthropology o How social, environmental, and biological factors influence health, and illness of individuals at the community, regional, and national level  Foresnic Anthro o Focuses only on skeletal remains of humans   Major questions: o How does evolution work and how does it effect us> o What are the biological characteristics of our species/ o Physical record of our evolution?  Research? Scientific Method! o State problem o Gather info o Form hypothesis o Test hypothesis o Record and analyze data o State the conclusion o Repeat the work  Scientific theory  4 problems limited development of theory of evolution: o lack of knowledge on age of earth o religious concept of fixity of species o lack of scientific method o religious notion of separate creation for humans and animals  1) age of the Earth: o in 1650, earth created on afternoon of October 23, 4004 BC o accepted because church pronouncements held as secular and religious law  2)fixity of species o by 8 thcentury, scientists say living things created in the present form  3) lack of scientific method o many ideas and concepts based on singular observations or fanciful accounts of other travelers o Ewaipanoma  4)separate Creation for human and animals o religious doctrine that GOD CREATED Humans separate from and over animals o  Carolus Linnaeus st o 1 comprehensive classification system for living things o each living thing named separate species o on basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories o Binomial Nomenclature – o Was NOT an evolutionist  George Louis Leclerc o Earth‟s history > 6000 years o Major issue with contemporary religious authorities o Founded biography: despite similar environments, different regions have distinct plants and animals  Jean Baptiste Lamarck o Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics. “vital forces” within creatures help them adapt to an environment o Acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed on to future generations o Among first to formulate method for orginatin of new species through use or disuse of certain characters  Charles Darwin: o Observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures o Conclusion: NO fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological history for earth must be incorrect o Variations important in evolution  Physical variety in any population of organisms  If variety provides advantage to certain individuals, then they may oroduce more offspring  These offspring inherit beneficial variations, so they produce more offspring; variation norm of population  Population may change, perhaps completely new o How does adaptive change occur?  Darwin: individuals in a species adapt to environments and long term adaptation means evolutionary shift o Theory of Natural selection:  There must be a common ancestry for everything on the planet  Species evolved by natural selection  Natural selection : a process in nature resulting in survival and perpetuation of only those forms of life having certain favorable characteristics that enable them to adapt best to their environment o Alfred Russell Wallace (1823- 1913)  Core ideas wee similar to Darwin‟s  Describing certain aspects of natural selection o 3 postulates of Darwanian Evolution  struggle for existence  variation in fitness  inheritance of variation o other contributions:  later works apply to humans & discuss other aspects of trait variation  Sexual selection: certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspecific competition o Why doesn‟t evolution result in general increase of fitness of life to external world?  Reason: environment always changing  Relative to organisms, environments always get worse  Natural selection concerned with keeping up, but every species eventually becomes extinct  Design limitations in biology  Only works on whats there o “survival of the fittest:  Herbert Spencer NOT Charles Darwin  Proclaimed wrongly that a struggle for existence in human society leads in effect, to its evolution.  Argues against policies, such as charity, that might interfere with process of producing fit individuals aand institutions o Darwinian evolution and inheritance  Major weakness: no explanation on how characteristics inherited o Lamarckian Blending Gregor Mendel:  Priest  Experimented with pea Plants o They inbred: true breeding lines o They are hybrids: quantify traits o They have observable traits o The plants are small o They are self fertilizing, but can do cross fertilizations  Each individual plant carry 2 copies of “factor” determines trait  If plants “breed true” then identical factors; otherwise, one would have to mask other trait th September 27 , 2012: Principles of Evolution  The modern synthesis if evolution o Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and populations o Microevolution o Macroevolution DNA  RNA  Protein  Cell: o Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells) o Gametes: Sex cells o Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called organelles o Nucleus: Contains hereditary material, known as chromosomes  Chromosomes: paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing gene that transmit traits from generation to generation  DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid: used to store genetic information that codes for the synthesis of proteins o Four bases: (A) adenine, (G) guanine, (C) cytosine, (T) thymine  RNA molecules: o 1. Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body o 2. Regulate expression of other genes o 3. Wok with structures in cell (ribosomes) that are critical for manufacture of proteins o 4. Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creation of proteins.  Proteins o Linear sequences of amino acids; building blocks of cells o Each protein has specific function determined by “blueprint” stored in DNA. o Ex. Catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain protein (digestion); and many more  DNA is organic and therefore has to replicate itself; gets information to RNA through transcription; RNA produces protein through translation o Transcription:  Synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid (mRNA) at unwound section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as template  Result: genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to RNA  mRNA carries information into cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via translation  Codons: o Genetic information encoded in sequence of three nucleotides termed codons o Four nucleotides of RNA are same as DNA but Uracil substitutes for Thymine o Typo on page 27 of book o UUAACG – AATTGC  Translation: o tRNA is information adapter molecule o direct interface between amino-acid sequence of protein & information in mRNA therefore it decodes information in mRNA o acceptor stem is site where specific amino acid is attached. Anticodon reads information in mRNA sequence by base pairing  Genetics & heredity o Gene: chemical unit of heredity o Phenotype: observable physical appearance of organism; may or may not reflect genotype or total genetic constitution o Genotype: the total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism o Alleles: one member of a pair of genes o Homozygous: possessing two identical genes or alleles on corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes. Ex. YY or yy o Heterozygous: possessing differing genes or alleles in corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes. Ex. Yy o Dominant alleles: allele of gene pair that is always phenotypically expressed in heterozygous form .For example: Y always expressed phenotypically when paired with y (Yy). o Recessive alleles: allele phenotypically suppressed in heterozygous form & expressed only in homozygous form. Ex. Y only expressed phenotypically when paired with y (yy); eg. Mandibular tori  Mutation: o error or change in a nucleotide sequence o randomly occurring process o somatic cell mutations vs. germ cell mutations in terms of relevance to evolutionary anthropology o can be neutral, harmful, of vary rarely beneficial. o Result of four things: copying errors in cell division, exposure to radiation, exposure to mutagens, or exposure to viruses o Ultimate source of new genetic materials in populations  Pop genetics: genetic drift: o Random changes in gene pool over time o Three important outcomes:  reduces within – population genetic variation  More likely to effect small populations  Increases between – population genetic variation Gene flow: o Movement of genes between populations. o Two important outcomes  Initially, increases within – population genetic variation  Eventually, reduces between – population genetic variation  Natural selection o Any consistent difference in fitness among phenotypically different biological entities o Deterministic process involving differential reproductive success o Acts only on existing variation o “the catch” – biological evolution can occur without natural selection and vice versa  3 modes of section: o directional selection: process favoring either higher or lower values of character, thereby promoting variation o Stabilizing selection: average phenotype is fittest , reduces variation o Disruptive variation: both extremes of trait are favored. Increases variation.  Adaptation: process and feature  Process: change in organism enabling it to better reproduce and survive in environment  Feature: characteristic that performs function of utility to organism possessing it  Macroevolution: o Large scale changes at or above the special level o Extends over geologic era o Associated with research on the formation of new taxonomic groups  Speciation o Evolutionary process involving the formation of new species o About 12 modern species definitions .we focus on biological species concept and phylogenetic species concept o We look for shared common ancestry between taxon  Modern evolutionary synthesis o A modern theory of evolutionary processes that emphasize the combined action of the four mechanisms of change:  Random mutation  Natural selection  Genetic drift  Gene flow  Cladistics: o System of biological taxonomy based on quantitative analysis of comparative data that is used to reconstruct (assumed) phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups of organisms o Three major assumptions:  There are changes in characteristics within lineages over time  All organisms descended from common ancestors  When the lineage does split, it divides into exactly two groups  Cladorgram: a branching diagram used to illustrate phylogenetic relationship  Reading cladogram:  Each internal node represents a recent common ancestor  Within a cladogram may be a number of clades  Clade: a group of organisms that contains an ancestral taxon and all of its  Tree topology: the branching patterns of lines connecting nodes and organisms  Focus on internal branching patterns o Watch out for Polytomies  Happens when we don‟t have enough data o 3 misconceptions:  1. Evolution produces patterns of relationships among organisms that are like a tree and not like a ladder  2. Although they are organized from top to bottom, don‟t assume that the taxa on the top are more advanced than the taxa on the bottom  avoid reading across terminal nodes (tips), the order of which has no meaning; thus, you should look at the internal October 4 , 2012:  Primate Behavior & Ecology: o Primates are mammals (warm –blood, having hair and feeding milk to its young). o Primates differ from most mammals by having:  grasping hands and feet  collarbone (clavicle)  Radius and ulna  Forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision o Primate activity patterns:  Nocturnal: active at night  Diurnal: active during the day  Crepuscular: active at dawn and dusk  Cathemeral: active any time of the day o Strepsirhine Characteristics:  Dental tooth comb  Moist rhinarium  Unfused mandibular and frontal symphases  Tapetum lucidum – biological device that reflects light – can see as well under moon light as we can under regular lighting  Postorbitol bar  Two superfamilies: Lemuroidea and Lorisoidea o Two Stepsirhine Superfamilies  Lemuroidea  Madagascar and Comoro islands  Arboreal quadrupeds and leapers; some are partially terrestrial  Many small-bodied species are nocturnal  Female dominance  Varied diet  Lorisoidea  Found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia  Lorises and galagos  Arboreal quadrupeds  Nocuternal  Varied diet o Haplorhine Characteristics:  Dry nose  Retinal fovea  Postorbitol closure.  Fused mandibular and frontal symphases  Three infraorders:  Tarsiiformers  Platyrrhini  Catarrhini  Tarsiiformers:  One genus (Tarsius)  Found in southeast Asia  Small body size (80 – 130 g)  Relatively large eyes, with fused lower leg bones  Entirely faunivorous (eat the local “faun”)  Platyrrhines:  Central and South America  Body mass: 110g – 11.4 kg  Cebidae, Atelidae, and Callitrichidae  Catarrhines  Africa, Asia, And Southeast asia  Body mass: 1 – 175 kg  Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae, and Hominidae  Variety of diets, social organizations, and adaptations o Human Beings: Homo sapiens  Habitual, upright, bipedal posture & locomotation  Use of forelimb almost entirely for manipulation, carrying & throwing; rarely used for locomotion  Enormous expansion of brain volume  Reduction of the teeth, jaws, and chewing muscles  Body size: o Scaling: area (L X W) and volume (L X W X D) change at different rates o Animal doubles in size will be eight times heavier – area four times bigger o Small animals have greater heat (energy) loss than larger animals  Primate Habitats: o Tropical rainforests, dry forests, deserts, and savannas o Primary vs. secondary forests o Ecological niche o Forest microhabitats o Emergent layer o Canopy o Understory  Primate evolutionary ecology: o Bottom up processes o Top-down processes o Seed dispersal and pollination o Predation pressures on primates o Plant defensive adaptations o Physical o Chemical  Primate sociality: o Complex social lives including: deception, female mate choice, homosexuality, kin recognition, warfare, friendship  Primate social grooming o More about establishing and maintaining social bonds than hygiene o Also used to reconcile conflict  Primate Dominance Hierarchies o Social order sustained by  Aggression  Affiliation, or  Other behavioral patters  Primate social organization o Residence group composition o Mating systems: who mates with whom o Forgaging coherence; who eats with whom, o Philopatry type o Female philopatry: males leave at sexual maturity o Male philopatry: females leave at sexual maturity  Why do primates live in groups? o Advantages:  Improved predetor protection  Improved access to food  Resource defence  Increased access to potential mates o Disadvantages:  Increased predator encounters  More mouths to feed  Increased travel/ forging costs  Disease transmission  Disease transmission: o Ebola in Gorillas in Africa  Zaire strain of Ebola virus I Gabon and Congo  Each human outbreak accompanied by reports of gorilla and chimpanzee carcasses in neighboring forests  In 2002 and 2003, ZEBOV killed about 5000 gorillas in one study area  Primate conservation: o Habitat disturbance o Logging o Agriculture o Forest fragmentation o Human pressures o Subsistence vs. economic  Biology & anthropology o Wouldn‟t you do anything to save a loved one? o Don‟t fall for “local people are problem” th October 11 , 2012: Primate & Early Human Evolution  Paleocene: o Geography and climate  Very different from present day conditions  Hotter, more humid o Paleocene & Primate like Mammels: Plesiadapiformes  Body size: tiny, shrew sized to size of small dogs  Niche: likely solitary, nocturnal quadrupeds; well developed sense of smell  Diet: insects and seeds  Used to be classified as primates because of primate-like teeth and limbs that are adapted for arboreal lifestyle o Recent: Plesiadapids are not primates  No postorbital bar  Claws instead of nails  Eyes placed on side of head  Enlarged incisors o More recent; plesiadapids and few others ARE primates  Eocene: o Geography and climate o Two main Eocene Primate Families  Adapidae  Body size: 100g to 6900 g Diurnal and nocturnal forms Mainly arboreal quadrupeds; some may have been specialized leapers Smaller adapids ate mostly fruit and insects. Larger ones ate fruit and leaves Led to lemurs?  Omomydae  Body size of 45g to 2500g  Some nocturnal other diurnal  Omomyids thought to been specialized leapers  Teeth; adapted for eating insects and soft fruits, only few species were leaf eaters  Led to tarsiers?  Similarity does not always equate with close phylogenetic relationship  Oligocene o Geography & Climate  South America meets up with Central and blocks of currents between Atlantic and Pacific oceans, this connection later breaks o Primates  Three haplorhine features  Fused frontal bone  Full postorbital closure  Fused mandibular symphases  Three taxonomic groups:  Parapithecidae  Propliopithecidae – from old world  Platyrrhini - from new world o South American Primates:  Primates appear for first time in fossil record of south America towards late Oligocene  Origins of South American primate unclear  May have “rafted” over from Africa  Miocene: o Early o Middle o Late  Miocene primates: o 3 sequential sub-epochs for apes o early Miocene apes  monkeys and apes apparently confined to Africa o Mid Miocene  Ape-like catarrhines widespread and diverse in Europe and Asia o Late Miocene  Apes became rarer ass woodlands and forests replaced by drier and more open habitats  Pliocene o Weather and geography:  Land masses still on move – connection between north and south America opened via Panama  Fluctuations in global temperatures  Mediterranean sea dried up at end of Miocene and filled up again in Pliocene o Primates  Geography and climate  Two main taxa  Fossil Cercopithecinae  Fossil Colobrinae  Phylogenetic relationships; unsolved o Transitional forms (apes: human) ?  Modifications of postcranial skeleton for bipedal locomotion  Shape and size of canines, especially in males, changes so not pointy or blade-like. Reduction in levels of sexual dimorphism in canine size  Expansion of brain o Hominin: modern humans, chimps, and fossil species more closely related to each other than to any other living species o Morphological trends in hominin evolution:  Mosaic evolution – major evolutionary changes tend to take place in stages, not all at once  Bipedalism  Increased brain size  Intelligence  Relative vs. absolute o Quadrupedalism vs. Bipedalism  Quad – gorrilas  Foremen Magnum closer to back  Knees  Feet – location of big toe - way back like in the hand  Hands- knuckle walk- pressure on second digit of hands o Bipedalism – humans  Foremen magnum closer to skull  Knees- cause angle at bottom of our thigh bone  Feet- bog toe right at the front  Hominin fossils: o Early fossils only in Africa o Homo erectus first to leave Africa  Transitional forms o Sahelanthropus tchadensis  Bahr el Ghazal, Chad  Oldest known transitional hominin: 7 MYA  Reconstructed cranium, fragmented mandible, and a few teeth  Combination of ape-like and hominin like cranial features o Orrorin tugenesis  Kapsomin, Kenya  Fragments of mandible, teeth, finger, femur, and humerus  Femur provides evidenceof bipedalism but arm bones indicate adept climber  May represent earliest and first bipedal hominin  Ardipithecus ramidus & Ardipithecis kadabba o Middle Awash, Ethiopia o A. ramidus; 4.4 MYA o A. kadabba: 5.8 MYA o Teeth and fragments of various upper and lower bones o Both ape like traits and hominin like traits (reduced sexual dimorphism)  Kenyanthropus platyops o West Turkana, Kenya o Highly fragmented cranium, a few mandibles, and fragments of skull bones o Morphology similar to asutralopithecines o Highly distinctive flat face Human Evolution:  Some Key Australopithecines: the first “real” Hominins  Australopithecus anamensis o Kanapoi, Kenya o 4.3-3.9 MYA o tooth row is parallel (ape-like) o partial tibia provides strong evidence for bipedality o primitive (ape-like) cranial morphology and a derived (human-like) postcranial motphology  Australopithecus afarensis o Ethiopia and Tanzania  4.2 – 3 MYA  many specimens  Complex morphology exhibiting some ape-like traits (ex. Sagittal crests) and hominin trait like valgus knee  Single, sexually dimorphic species or two species?  Laetoli Footprints:  3.6 MYA in Laetoli, Tanzania  demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal  big toes hardly diverged from the rest of the foot, unlike in chimps  Gait was “heel-strike” followed by “toe-off”; the way modern humans walk  Recent discovery:  Selam (peace): fossilized skull & skeletal remains of 3 year old female. Dated to 3.2 MYA  Hyoid bone: typical ape morphology  Foot & lower limb remains: bipedal  Scapula & hand bones: gorilla-like scapula and long and curved manual phalanges indicate importance of arboreal behavior  Australopithecus africanus o Various sites in South Africa o 3.0-2.3 MYA o Average brain size is 458 cc. o Dental features differ from those in previous o Postcranial features similar to those in A. afarensis  Australopithecus aethiopicus o West Turkana, Kenya o 2.7-2.3 MYA o large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crests, and enormous teeth o remarkably primitive hominin at such a late date  Australopithecus boisei o Olduvail, Tanzania o 2..2-1.2 MYA o “Hyper-robust” hominin o morphology broadly similar to that seen in A. aethiopicus o Contemporaneous with members of the genus Homo  Australopithecus robustus o Swartkrans and Kromadraai, South Africa o 2-1 MYA o Another robust form o Small anterior and large posterior teeth, which are covered in thick enamel (human like trait) o Gracile and Robust Forms?  Gracile Australopithecines  Australopithecus afarensis  Australopithecus africanus  Robus Australopithecines  Australopithecus boisei  Australopithecus robustus  Australopithecus aethiopicus  Australopithecus sediba o Malapa, south Africa o 1.98 MYA o initial discovery by 9 year old son of researcher o Juvenile male (MH1) & adult female (MH2) remains o Very controversial o Brain: human-like shape yet < brain volumes in Homo o Hand: good for tree-climbing & long thumb and short fingers o Pelvis: more human like than ape like (precision grip) o Conclusion: unique form of upright walking, not quite like that of humans, along with some degree of tree climbing  Rise of the genus homo: o Earliest evolved in Africa o Most date 2.4 to 1.8 MYA o First fossil member of taxon: Homo habilis, which means “Handy man.” o Some researchers suggest that H. habilis is “junk taxon” and that there may be two or more species of Homo by 2 MYA  Species in the genus homo: o Homo habilis  From sites in Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia (2.3-1.6 MYA)  Species designation: brain size and association with stone tools  Skeletal morphology similar to contemporaneous australopithecines  First species of homo or junk taxon?  May represent 2 or more different species o Homo rudolfensis  Koobi For a, Kenya  Originally considered H. habilis  H. rudolfensis or H. habilis first representitve of generation o Homo erectus  First species in genus Homo found outside Africa  1.8 MYA – 27 KYA  Brain and body size changes in lineage  Controlled use of fire and hunting  Early African specimens may be different species, Homo ergaster o Homo ergaster:  East and South Africa  1.8-1.3 MYA  distinguished from H. erectus by its thinner skull-bones and lack of an obvious supraorbital foramen  debate on H. erectus or H. ergaster as direct ancestor of modern humans  Turkana boy:  7-16 years old  1.6 m in height  brain size: 880 cc, likely 910 cc at adulthood (a modern human of comparable size would be expected to have brain size of 1350 cc o Homo heidelbergensis  Europe and Africa  1700-130 KYA  compared to H. erectus and H. hidelbergensis; bigger dentition, smaller brain size, bigger body size o Homo antecessor  Spain  1.2 MYA – 800 KYA  controversy surrounding species designation  type specimen is juvenile  1 hominin in Europe? o Homo neanderthalensis  Europe and Middle East (300-35 KYA)  Buried people in graces with “offerings”  Limb bones heavily marked by muscular attachments; thick walls of cortical bone and large joints  Neanderthals extremely muscular, highly active, and extremely athletic by modern human standards  Genetics:  Geneticists able to extract DNA from 3 specmens  Early studies: genetics of Neanderthals versus modern humans point to 706 KYA separation and considerable genetic variation  Recent studies led by Dr. Svante Paabo: half of Neanderthal genome:  Demonstrated range of genetic contribution to non –African modern humans of !% -$% likely in Levant  VERY CONTROVERSIAL o Homo floresiensis  Flores Island, Indonesia  95-13 KYA  small body size; ca. 1.06 m)  small brain size  primitive and derived features  NOT aberrant individual; rather, unique species o Homo sapiens  160 KYA in Africa, 100 KYA in Middle East, 40 KYA in Europe  controlled use of fire  hunting and gathering  Cultural remains, including increasingly complex stone tools o Postcrania of Homo sapiens  Less robust than early H. sapiens or Neanderthals  Longer limbs & thinner bone walls  Longer, more tightly built hands  Shorter, thicker pubic hair  Reduced robusticity of long bones, perhaps result of greater reliance on stone tools than on brute force o Human Origins Hypothesis  Replacement Hypothesis  One wave of human dispersal and replacement of other congenera out of Africa  Modern humans are descendants of African H. sapiens  H. neanderthalensis is evolutionary dead end o Multiregional hypothesis  No wave of H. sapiens replacements  H. erectus most recent common ancestor of modern human  H. neanderthalensis contributed to gene pool of some modern human populatios o Alan Templeton‟s “Out of Africa Again and Again”  Analysis of multiple human genes reveals patterns of recurrent gene flow October 25 , 2012: Human Variation & Forensic Anthropology: Human Variation: RACE  In science, race is geographically circumscribed population or set of populations that differ from all other populations of species  In biology, race is synonymous with subspecies  Subspecies: geographically isolated populations within species Racism in Toronto, Ontario, Canada ,and North America Racial Bundles:  “Caucasian” Bundle o pale skin o straight or wavy hair o noses of narrow to medium width o medium to tall stature  “Black” Bundle o black or dark brown skin o wiry hair o thick noses and lips o medium stature Skin Color Adaptation  Physical traits we think of as clustering together among particular people often have much broader distributions  They continue well outside of geographic areas in which “race” is stereotypically supposed to exist  Example: dark brown skin is found in sub-Saharan Africans as well as people from southern Asia, Australia, New Guinea and on nearby islands of Melanesia, as well as in much of the Americas. Are There Human Races?  No biological or phylogenetic ways to define a human race  Race concepts based on everything rom skin color through region(s) of origin to ethnicity  Crude classification system typically involves self-identification based on up-bringing, culture, ethnicity, etc.  Morphological and genetic differences in human “races” much smaller than those needed to consider nonhuman animals subspecies.  Racism stems from unfamiliarity, stereotypes, and ignorance of science Medical Anthropology:  Medical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that draws upon social, cultural, biological, Medical Anthropologists and Applied Anthropology  Infectious disease o Caused by microbial agent (e.g., common flu) o Death rates by infectious disease between developed countries (low) and developing countries (high) o Pandemics o Co-evolution of humans and pathogens  Chronic disease: o Non-reversible pathology o For example: heart disease o “Wear and tear” on body o comparison of death rates by chronic disease between developed (high) and developing (low) Nutrition and Health  Malnutrition crisis o Developing nations o Protein malnutrition o Micronutrient malnutrition  May result in reduced cognitive functions  Obesity Crisis o Developed nations o Complex causes  Not exercising Forensic Anthropology: Forensic Anthropology in Real Life  Forensic Anthropology is “applied” science  Borrow methods and techniques developed from skeletal biology, osteology Forensic Anthropology  Methods and techniques to asses: (!) age, (2) sex, (3) stature, (4) trauma, (5) pathology 1. Age  younger individual is ,more accurately their age can be estimates  why: process of ossification proceeds more rapidly at earlier age  17 years, epiphyseal cartilage cells stop duplicating & entire cartilage is replaces by bone 2. Sex  pronounced difference in shape of pelvis. Birth Canal larger & rounder in females  males have narrower pelvis, with smaller and less rounded birth canals 3. Stature  sexual dimorphism: males and females differ in body size  difference in size seen in about every bone of the body  males continue growing longer than females 4. Trauma  Lesion (pathologically produced feature of a bone; such as TB) vs. bone defect (hole, break, or other traumatic damage  Overall nature of bone defect, timing of trauma relative to death, and nature of forces that operates on a bone cause certain trauma  Ex. Pre-mortem, peri-mortem, post-mortem 5. Pathology  Abnormality that arises from disease, malnutrition, or genetic defect  Differs from trauma in that pathology is not normally result of an injury  Ex. Infectious disease What is Archaeology: Definition: The study of material remains (physical objects) and the spatial relationships to interpret past human behavior Relationship of Archaeology with other disciplines  Archaeology is highly interdisciplinary  Archaeology and Anthropology o Anthropology = the study if human kind = a holistic discipline – seeks to bring together all aspects of human biology and culture o Archaeology adds a historic dimension, and comparative case studies Archaeology and History  Both study the past  History is based on written documents; archaeology on material culture  History is limited to at most 5000 years; less than 100 in some regions  History is limited primarily to literate societies  Written records tend to focus on the rich and powerful Historical Archaeology  Archeology with aid of historic records  Often documents do not give the complete picture, and nly archaeology can fill the gaps  Ex. How did “commoners” live?  (this contrasts with Prehistoric Archeology – where no historical records exist) Classical Archaeology  Specialized sub discipline  Classical civilization of Greece and Rome from about 700 BC- 500AD Archaeology and Science:  Science is the systematic pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena  Science continually tests and refines conclusions  In many ways, archeology operates as a science  Archeology “borrows” from or interacts with many different sciences  Geology o Ex. Understanding what types of stone were selected for some tools  Biology o Ex. Analysis of plant pollen. How much meat would a particular species of animals provide?  Physics and Chemistry o Ex. Radiocarbon dating  Astronomy o Ex. Why was Stonehenge aligned in a particular way? BUT…  Archaeology is a social science  Since archeology deals with human behavior, it will often be less predictable than the natural sciences – people are dynamic and complex, because of individual personality, culture, and motivations st November 1 , 2012: The Archaeological Order  The sum of all physical (not written) evidence about the past o Objects plus their context  2A) Site formation processes: factors that affect the archaeological record o we cannot observe ancient behavior, only the contemporary material remains of behavior o not all behavior will leave material traces o because of intervening cultural and natural processes, the archaeological record is not usually a direct reflection of past behavior o Archaeologists must avoid the “ Pompeii Premise”  Some definitions: o Artifact: any object that has been made or modified by people o Ecofact: natural object used or affected by people o Feature: non-portable material remains resulting from human activity o Archaeological site: a place where evidence of past human activity is preserved  How do artifacts enter the archaeological record? o Four stages:  1. Acquisition – either direct or through trade  2. Manufacture – modification of raw material  3. Use (and possible recycling) – leaves traces on artifact; spatial relationships  4. Deposition – entry of the material into the archaeological record  intentional: eg. Discard into midden, burial in cemetery  Accidental: ed. Loss  Similar patterns for ecofacts, features, sites o KEY: artifacts can enter the arch. Record at any point in this process  Processes that transform the archaeological record: o Following deposition: natural and cultural o Natural factors:  Climate (especially temperature and humidity)  Extreme wet, dry, or cold preserves organics  Biological (decay, rodents)  Soil chemistry – can destroy (acid) or preserve (fossilize)  Catastrophic events (volcanoes, earthquakes)  Burning – may preserve more than destroy  Taphonomy: “the science of burial” – changes that occur to organisms or objects after being deposited  Cultural Factors: o Reoccupation – earlier structures destroyed artifacts mixed around o Large scale human events – war o Antiquities market – encourages looting o Re-use – eg. Whalebone or wood house rafters o Disturbance processes in recent times  Changes the context of materials within the archaeological site  Eg. Ploughing, subdivision development  o As a result of these natural and cultural factors the archaeological record is highly distorted  Context: o The provenience and association of an artifact, features, or archaeological find in space and time o Provenience: three- dimensional location of an artifact or feature o Association: two or more items occurring together, usually in the same level, feature, etc.  Eg. Artifacts associated with burial  Eg. Projectile points found with extinct animals  Primary context: undisturbed since seposition of artifacts by people who made and used them o Eg. Burials, living floors  Secondary context: altered by transformational processes, so provenience and/ or association are affected o Eg. Prehistoric Ontario site ploughed by farmers  Artifacts moved by natural factors such as wind, water rodents…  2B) Fieldwork o Site Prospection (survey) and Excavation o Site Prospection – the systematic attempt to identify archaeological sites) o Yields data on site size, distribution, number, form o Also yields data on local ecological zones and geographic features  How are sites found? o Some cites were never lost,,, o Chance or accident – eg. Lascaux (schoolboy‟s dog), “ice man” o Use of documentary sources – eg. L‟Anse aux Meadows, Troy o Salvage archaeology – determined by industrial or urban development plans or site destruction o Site prospection:  Important to the regional approach: allows reconstruction of settlement pattern = distribution of sites across the landscape  Surface survey: o Most common –walking- looking for surface finds o Recognize sites through surface artifacts, surface landform variation, variable vegetation o Aerial survey – airplanes, helicopters, satellites o Subsurface techniques;  Used to identify buried remains  Simplest, most common = test pitting – using shovel  Also coring for deeper deposits o Non invasive methods for subsurface detection o Soil resistivity – resistance to electrical current o Ground penetrating radar – bounces electromagnetic waves off of subsurface features  Excavation: o Site evaluation  One a site is found, you must determine size, type, layout  Produce accurate maps  Map surface features to determine initial layout  Plot surface artifacts and ecofacts  Remote sensing / test pitting  Excavation is necessary for detailed information o Often buried deposits are better preserved and less disturbed than surface deposit o Only buried deposits allow archaeologists to inter association o Best evidence for change in activity over time o The key = retaining exact 3 dimensional record of context o Horizontal control – usually 1 meter grid system o Vertical control – depth below surface or below “datum”  Excavation Strategy: o 1. Vertical excavation- stratigraphy, artifact change through time o deep probes, generally used to construct chronologies o 2. Horizontal excavation – spatial distributions at a specific time (ex. Reconstruct lifeway) – single deposit of former living surface o looks at relationships between artifacts, ecofacts, features, etc  Most excavations combines aspects of both vertical and horizontal strategies  Screening (also called “sifting”) o Critically important to recover full range og material o flotation – special type of screening – materials lighter than water are collected from surface o need to conserve parts of sites, due to constantly changing methods which allow improved data recovery and analysis o only dig what is necessary to answer current questions o record, photograph, and draw everything  2C) dating methods o BC (Before Christ) = BCE (before the common era) o AD (Anno Domini) = CE (common era) o BP (before present – often used with radiocarbon dating) o Dating is primary objective of arch – nothing else is possible without it o Accurate chronology frees archaeologists, so that they are able to concentrate on bigger questions o Direct dating – analysis of the object itself o Indirect dating – analysis of material associated with a given object. Depends on Context  Relative dating o earlier or later than something else o ordering things in a sequence  Methods: o Stratigraphy:  Based on the sequential laying down of strata th  17 century – Law of Superposition: “Where one layer overlies another, the lower layers was deposited first  stratigraphy excavation- designed to reveal a vertical profile showing a temporal sequence  strata are created both by humans and natural processes  Potential problems:  Garbage pits  Burrowing animals  Floods washing layers away  Seriation ( = typological sequence) = artifact change over time o Technology and fashions change o Some artifacts change more quickly and regularly than others o Eg. Pottery ; arrowhead types o Stylistic seriation  Most often pottery – types or styles  Presence / absence o Frequency seriation  More precise means of determining an ordered sequence  Based on the fact that any artifact type will be initially rare, then well-accepted, and then die out as it is replaced  “battleship-shaped curve”  measuring changes in the promotional abundance (frequency) or artifacts  limitations on seriation  1. Style must be regional so that the same temporal ordering can be applied to many sites  2. The types must occur in significant frequencies  Thursday November 15 : th Reconstructing technological systems: Artifacts are the basis of much of archaeology have spent a great deal of time reconstructing how they were made From simplest stone tools, to highly elaborate ones Ceramic, boats, house, etc. Features or households within a settlement or site  Households are usually arranged into larger units. Ex. Villages  Sometimes sites also contain special purpose features and activity areas  Differences in house size can indicate status differences Sites within region  functional differences between sites  seasonal aggregation and dispersal, population distribution  site hierarchies – cities to smaller settlements Reconstructing social systems:  The structure of a society, how people relate to one another  Major aspects: o 1. Population size – particularly difficult to reconstruct  eg. How many houses in a site were occupied at the same time?  Howm any sites in a region were occupied at the same time o 2. Age – ex. The roles of children and the elderly o 3. Gender  a major element structuring roles and responsibilities in all societies  has become central to modern archaeology (though challenging to reconstruct)  ex. Activity areas within houses 4. power relationships/ status hierarchies  closely lined to control of production and distribution of wealth and other resources (economic organization)  ex. Houses of variable size, containing variable amounts of status goods  ex. Mortuary patterning –assumption: people treated differently in life will be treated differently in death o Moundville:  Ceremonial centre of Mississippian culture  20 major mounds  over 2000 burials have been excavated  each mound- limited number of high –status adults. The highest status had specific artifacts  highest prestige items- both sexes, all ages- therefore it is inherited at birth  (compare to egalitarian- achieved status)  supreme class – generally adult males  5. Trade – interregional interaction o acquire goods and services not available locally o yields information on economic organization and connectedness (i.e, transmission of ideas) o a) utilitarian items – food, tools, etc o b) nonutillitarian items – ex. Ritual and status goods all human societies have complex and elaborate ideologies however, they leave particularly ambiguous remains, and many practices simply leave no evidence -songs, dances, etc. Diarchronic objectives:  explain culture change o much of the rest of this course will be about culture change, so this will be brief  Mechanisms of Change: o Innovation: a newly discovered or invented thing, idea, or way of behaving o Can happen rapidly due to deliberate effort, or slowly Diffusion: borrowing by one society of trait (idea, object, technology) present in another society, due to the contact between the two societies. Wll occur only when the Acculturation: the process of extensive cultural borrowing between two societies, often in the context of unequal power relationships - particularly associated with colonialism Adaptation to Environment/ environmental change  Using culture not biological to adapt INAL NOTES: most cases of culture change are complex, and involve more than one mechanism  Important to remember that human societies are made up of complex individuals and that history and politics are critical in any instance of culture change Stone tools: the earliest indications of material culture Culture: the system of shared beleifs, values, customs, behaviours, and artifacts that the members of society use to cope  Tools are made of stone, wood, Either the flake of the core is used to produce a tool (“core tool” vs. “flake tool”) Platform – the point of impact where the flake is detached from the core Cortex – original exterior of stone core Percussion flaking (removal of flakes by impact) vs. pressure flaking (removal of flakes by pressing, rather than striking) Hard hammer (hammerstone) vs. soft hammer (antler, bone, or wood billet) Retouch = additional flaking along the edge of a flake to alter the shape – making it into a tool OLDOWEN TOOL TRADITION  Earliest stone tools – 2.5-1.5 MYA n Africa  3)core tools = pebbles and rock fragments from which flakes have been struck  some called choppers, etc. but poor choice of terms  mainly unofficial, a few crudely bifacial  early archaeologists thought flakes were like waste, but now its clear that there were most heavily used tools Earliest manufacturing techniques used Direct Percussion:  Hand held hammerstone  Bipolar technique  Throwing C) experiment (flakes are particularly good for cutting through hide- very sharp Use- wear on 9 unmodified flaked are from Koobi For a  Compared to stone tools experimentally used for specific purposes  Core tools- less important, but used for heavy-duty butchering and marrow bone nreakage Who made the earliest tools? H. habilis must have produced many of the tools Therefore, probably only easily Homo made tools Correlated with large brain, reduced jaws, increased meat eating Other aspects of homo habilis Overall, Homo erectus technology is very conservative Only slight changes over its entire span Eg. Zhoukoudian: over 100000 artifacts spanning over 200,000 years (or more) from 460-230 KYA – gradual reduction in tool size, change to better quality raw material, but no major new tool types. Other indications of behavior:  The entire homo erectus fiossil record consists of fragments of around 100 individuas  Fewer than 50 well-excavated archaeological sites  Bone-tools – raree, and not precisely manufactured  Clothing – may well have existed but no evidence  Shelter – several claims, all controversial  Fire- claims for control of fire as early as 1.4 MYA in Africa, but could be much later  Cannibalism? – Zhoukoudian – H. erectus skulls often destroyed at the base  Early interpretation – cannibalism  Recent taphonomy = hyena destruction of skull Summary: Increased meat eating – high energy resource Allowes new habitats to be exploited - why did Homo erectus become so widespread? - -were they forced to migrate from Africa?  Probably not – probably their adaptation allowed the population to increase and new generations moved to new territories  Perhaps, clothing, fire, shelter  Some languages likey, but not complex language Middle Palaeolithic  300 – 30KYA  primarily Homo neanderthalensis and equivalent hominins  cranial capacity as large as pr larger than modern humans (thought brain not organized in the same way)  very robust skeleton, large nasal openings, large lungs  Adaptations for exertion probably cold  Pathologies – high frequencies – healed fractures- like modern rodeo riders  Specialized to hunt large, prey animals Mousterian Tool Tradition:  More flake tools, fewer core tools  Associated with more complex flaked stone tools  Some stone tools now hafted (attached to handles)  Fine retouch – smaller flakes along margins to control shape, angle of edge  Many flakes produces with Levallois method – a major advance – core used to make regular flakes or predetermined Main tool types: 1) sidescrapers – simple flake with continuous retouch on one or more edges –used for food processing, hide scraping, wood working 2) points – thin triangular flake with two converging retouched edges – spear points 3() denticulates – any shallow indentations, giving a serrated edge – woodworking many Moustarian sites in Europe – variable stone tool inventories- indicate different seasons of occupation or site functions  therefore, a much more specialized lifeway NON-STONE TOOLS:  Use-wear ondicates that many stone tools were used to work wood  One definite wooden tool – fire-hardened spear  Bone tools very rare – despite good preservation of bone in many sites  No formal bone tool- similar to ancestors  No definite “art”, through red ochre may have been used to colour skin, clothes, etc. and some shells appear to have been SITE TYPES:  Largest, densest sites are in the mouths of caves  Easy to find, well preserves, so over represented  Cave sites are living sites  Many have hearts  Some open air sites also known: always fresh near water source – spring, lake, stream  Open air sites – often stone quarries or animal kill sites   Bounded concentration of artifacts, eg. Moldova, Ukraine  Bones or stones at rims may SUBSISTENCE: Plants must have been used, but only a few examples of berries, nuts, eg. Iraq  Abundant c=animal bones at many sites  Stable isotope analysis of Neanderthals bones indicates very high meat consumption  Hunting was now definitely common, although scavenging may still have been important Burials:  Some definite burials in Europe and Near East  Some special attitude to death, possibly belief in afterlife?  Grave goods are questionable – resemble other bones and tools in caves  Usually flexed – dig smallest hole possible?  Possibly – simply to remove them from habitation areas  Other rituals?  Therefore there are many types of species that Peopling of the Americas:  Migration occurred at the end of the Pleistocene (Ica Age) when sea levels were much lower  Migration occurred across Beringia – a subcontinenet consisting of eastern Siberia, northwest North America, and exposed continental shelf that connected the two areas  Sea levels fluctuated, but Siberia and Alaska were connected for most of last 100000 years, up to about 10 KYA  BY ABOUT 15 KYA (at the latest), Upper Palaeolithic hunter- gatherers had spread through most of Beringia, including Alaska.  2 possible routes south from Beringia: o the “ice-free corridor” between the Cordilleran and Laurentide Ice Sheets, through Alberta  was closed until around 14 KYA o The coastal route- down the pacific coast of Alaska and British Columbia, which was still partly glaciated. Archaeological evidence:  For many years, the “Clovis tradition” (around 13 KYA) was thought to represent the earliest people south of the ice sheets  Made very distinctive “fluted points” (points with a channel down each face, for hafting)  Very widespread, across much of North America However, over the past few decades, it has become clear that there are earlier sites; 2 best examples:  Monte Verde – coastal Chile- 14.6 KYA o Complex site with structures, bones, plant remains, well- dated  Paisley cave Topic 6: from food production to early states Food collection: subsistence based on wild animals and plants (“hunter gatherers”) Food production: subsistence base on cultivation and domestication of plants and animals Domestication: Horticulture: Pastoralism: Intensive agriculture: th January 15 , 2013: Linguistics  Two “moieties of anthropology:  Origins of Anthropology: o The age of Imperialism (mid-19 th -20thcentury) o Modern anthropology developed in the colonizing “west” to explain the “rest” o The west (north) was becoming dominant all over the world o More than ever was known in the west about the non-west  Anthropology of the non-West: o Anthropology was largely the discipline for explaining the non-West o The general public and early anthropologists understood the non-West in terms of three kinds of difference: o A. linguistic (language) o B. cultural (social) o C. physical/ racial o D. material (cultural ant. And archaeology) o This is also how most western nations understood themselves  Public Prejudices o Western biology (race), material culture (technology), language and culture were considered most advanced o Including by scientists (mostly not modern anthropologists but philosophers, philosophers, and amateur archaeologists o “primitive” races ,cultures, languages- hunter gatherers o “Barbarians” = nomads o “civilized” races, cultures, languages  Ethnocentrism o Seeing everything from the perspectives of your own ethnic group o Anthropologists had an ambiguous relationship with imperialism and ethnocentrism o Modern anthropologists contributes to the building of western empires but: o While unable to escape some of the prejudices of their time, most anthropologists tried to do so  Bronislaw Malinowski, 1884-1942 (in the Trobriand Islands , 1918) o each culture responds to its own niche equally well  Franz Boas, 1858-1942 o Each culture is a complex of language, culture, and physical type, and none is inferior to any other o A higher culture is one that recognizes that we are all equally human  Margaret Mead, 1901-1978 o In Bali, doing visual anthropology o Orderly, complex customs in non – Western societies o Different psychological types in different cultural groups, bu no hierarchy  Language o Only one way of signifying  Signifying o Making sense o Language is a signifying system for making sense o The functions of signification (by language and other signs: communication, identity formation, representation  Communication o Speaker (sender) o Hearer (receiver) o Channel:  Spoken  Written  Electronic  Marshall McLuhan o “the medium is the message” o meaning: regardless of its content, a new medium (channel of communication) will change the way we live o “global village”  2. Identity formation o Signifying systems (language) cause differentiation o Positive and Negative aspects of identity positive: disregards comparison, defines x by what x is on its own o Negative: stresses difference, defines x by what x is not  Difference, Conflict, Prejudice o Within all species, groups can come into conflict, often over resources o In homo sapiens, these groups may be adapted to different niches o And/or have different cultures and languages o And this may be accompanied by prejudices about the other  Prejudice does not come from difference, but from its context  Physical type and prejudice o Race: a folk nation, not a scientific notion o Human “races” are not distinct genetic pools o Humans do look different, and human looks can correlate with some other genetic traits o But not consistently enough to justify he notion of human races o There is more variation across than within races o So: differences in appearance are given by nature, but it is people who impose racial classification on those differences  Lessons of the one-drop rule o Racial classifications are made in the context of relations of power within society o The black race and white race were invented along with slavery in the Americas o “whiteness” meant freedom. So needed to be “protected”  Racial prejudice o Nineteenth century classifications:  Black, red, yellow, white  White the most civilized o Most people don‟t fall into these categories  Arabs: historically white then brown, then middle eastern, now a race on its own  Races are constructed using language  Cultural relativism: o States that there are no universal standards of progress of morality o This can be exploited to deny progress to others o It can disarm efforts for universal rights o Where do you stand?  Representation o The third function of signification, after communication and identity formation  Semiotics o The study of significance and signs th January 24 , 2013: Signifying reality: how signs construct the world Signification: making sense, making signs Linguistic and non-linguistic signs The nature of signs:  Signifier and signified  Symbol, icon, index  Denotation and connotation How signs “construct” reality How we construct our self Homo sapiens – “human that knows”  Knowing: making sense  To make sense = to signify  Study of signs (signifying: semiotics  Study of language: linguistics  Linguistics is part of semiotics  Semiotics is the study of: language and other signs (semiotics proper) A classic (“Saussurean”) view of signification  “Signifier” and “signified”  signifier + signified = sign Three kinds of signs  Symbol o Symbols have arbitrary relation to signified (“referent”) o Connected only via the system of dignification (ex. Language)arbitrary is opposite of “motivated” o Motivated icons and symbols not indexes  Icon o Share some of their physical form (shape, sound, etc.) with the referent  Index o Do not share any of their form with the referent and they do not sound/ look “the same” as the referent yet they indicate what they refer for Most works are arbitrary (symbols) o Cat o Happy o Scrambled o Totally o But some words are not pure symbols: moo, oink etc. o There are onomatopia  Example (from the online book) o Icon (telephone pic) o Symbol (Islam) o Index (“Tao” o Some signs have a mixed character  Icon for airplane might also be an index for an airport  Denotation and Connotation o Denotation: PM holding beer o Connotation: Steve s a “regular guy” o Denotation: harper photographed in Chinese setting saying” I hope they remember the Chinese food” o Connotation: Harper‟s multiculturalism is not sincere o The persuasive power of images: you cannot argue with them)  Construction and constructs o Linguistic and other signs constructs referents o Some referents are real an others are not o Irony, lies, fantasy, plans o Construction through signs is an adaptive advantage of homo sapiens  Linguistic signs have connotations, too: o A linguistic sign: ex. Word, phrase, sentence  “slob”  “cat”  “iphone” o Reality as a construction  Construction- formed b people in society, nurture not nature  Reality  What is verifiable  The world as it makes sense to us  Most of reality does not come across to us without the filter of signs and language  It is socially constructed  Language constructs reality  Creates an understanding of distinct concepts and categories as if they were a part of the subjective world  Such understandings have a bearing on all the real world  Example: color  “green” and “blue”  no distinction in old Chinese, old Japanese, Vietnamese, Sioux, and many other languages  perception and interpretation  the point is not that Chinese could not see green blue  but they did not see them as essentially different  ex. They were similar to “light blue” and “dark blue” in English today  so our understanding of the world is constructed by language  Social construction of the self:  Theory: our concept of having a self (our “I”, “ego”) is not entirely given by nature  It is constructed in society, by signs, especially language  Theory: like colours and races, there is a continuum that language and signs construct as separate entities  The self (“ego”, i) is such a constructed entity  “Jacques Lacan- French psychotherapist  Early construction of the self:  Baby does not come into society with a sense of an individual self  It learns that it is a distinct individual  It learns to partly through languages st January 31 , 2013:  The forms of language: Outline o Levels of linguistic (language) forms o Discourse analysis: text and context o Syntax: sentence structure o Morphology: words and their structure o Phonology: the sound system  Phonemes  Allophones  Learning resources; o The assigned readings o Wikipedia and the internet o Book in P section  The levels of language o Texts (studied in discourse analysis)  Any meaningful item of items perceived as a unit  Meaningful item or items understood as not forming part of a larger item  “to be or not to be” – a text  linguistic and non-linguistic texts  hamlet – a text  Sentence (studied in syntax) o  Words (morphology)  Phonemes (phonology)  Phones (phonetics)  Context: o In language and in other semiotic systems, o The meaning and function of each item depends on the context  “with text”  Syntax o The structure of sentences o Linguists often use “grammar” to mean “syntax” o Linguists describe how people speak; they do not prescribe how to talk “correctly” o If a normal native speaker says it in normal circumstances, then it is grammatical o Sentences with “bad grammar” are typically grammatical in the linguist‟s sense o The judgment of “badness” or “correctness” is a social issue.  Morphology o The structure of words o Morpheme: smallest unit of language that carries meaning o Con text o Sipp ed o Care ful y o Show s  Morphology is concerned with spoken, not written language  Morphemes and Allomorphs o Allomorph: Variant of a morpheme o Found in specific position within a word o Example: the “plural morpheme”  Variants (allomorphs)  Written –s or –es, but) pronounced “s”, “z”, or “iz” o Note that the plural morpheme is always spelled s, but not always pronounced the same o Describe the position of each variant (allomorph)  Phonemes o Units of the sound system of language o They are not sounds but classes of sounds o Phonemes have variants o Positional variants: allophones  Phoneme and allophone o The phoneme /p/ has two allophones in most English dialects – aspirated p^h and unaspirated H^p  A) p^h occurs at the beginning of stressed syllables o Pat, pin, repeat  B) p^= occurs everywhere else (position 2) o Tap, spin, therapy  Distribution o The aspirate p^h is distributed to the context or position: “as the beginning of stressed syllables o There two sounds are in complementary or mutually exclusive distribution  Complementary Distribution and Allophones o P^h and p^= are in complementary distribution o Each is in a separate position o They are 2 different allophones of the same phoneme  Allophones o They sound almost the same but not quite  Complimentary distribution and allophones o Cab vs. can o The nasal and the non-nasal “a” are allophones of the same phoneme,  French, NOT in complementary distribution o Quand /ka/ “when” o Cas /ka/ “case” o They are inconstrastive distribution  Contrastive distribution o When two sounds are in the same position o Chart vs. cart o Lenz land /lenz/ /lend/ o Fizzle fiddle o Each pair above is a minimal pair  Minimal pairs o Words that differ in only  Constructive and complementary distribution: phonemes and allophones o Sounds in contrastive distribution are different phonemes o Sounds in complementary distribution are allophones of the same phoneme  Phonemes o Sounds that are in constructive distribution are phonemes o The meaning changes when you replace one with the other o They can make minimal pairs  What am I, a phoneme or an allophone? o I never get into the others‟ way – allophone o I can be substituted for by another sound – phoneme o I am almost the same but not quite – allophone o When I replace another the whole meaning changes – phoneme  Language universals and differences o The language of the world only have a limited number of sound units (“sounds”) o No language uses all of them o Each language distributes them differently into phonemes and allophones o i.e a sound that is an allophone of a phoneme in one language may be a separate phoneme in another th February 14 , 2013:  Language, Culture, Freedom o The social construction of the self o Linguistic constraints on thought o Hegemony Whorf – “language influences thought”  The social construction of the self o Theory: our concept of having a self (our “I”, “ego”) is not entirely given by nature o It is constructed in society, by signs, especially language o Theory: like color and races, there is a continuum that language and signs construct as separate entities o The self )”ego”, “I”) is such a constructed entity  Jacques Lacan (1901-1981) o French psychoanalysis, interpreted Freud o Said that the self is linguistically constructed  How to self develops according to Lacan o Baby does not come into society with a sense of an individual self o She lives in the real ( experiences the world as unbounded) o With language, she learns the boundaries of things: this is the symbolic stage (world experiences as consisting of bounded units) o She learn “I”  Inner conversation o We are both “I” and “you” to ourselves o In inner conversation, one party coaches the other o This “coach” is more influenced by society o …it “represents” society o Freud: “superego” o Our self is a conversation, and it includes a representation of society (the superego)  Linguistic constraint on thought o Language and other signifying systems constrain what we can imagine and communicate o The ”Whorf hypothesis:” language, culture and thought are tightly interrelated o HOWEVER: “CULTURE” often turns out to be a symptom of social construction  The Whorf Hypothesis: o Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941) o “Strong Whorf Hypothesis:” Language Determines Thought o “Weak Whorf Hypothesis:” language influences thought o Hopi: cyclical rather than linear time o …because it does not have tense morphemes (past, future) o …but only marks complete vs. incomplete action (aspect)  Warning: o Do not exaggerate the influence of language on throught  Ex. “I like chiken”  “I love cheicken” = “J‟adore le poulet”  Je t‟aime = “I love you” o False conclusion: the French can not differentiate between liking and loving  Cultural meaning: o However, language does relate to culture-specific habits of thinking  Vocabulary and culure: example 1 (Polynesian) o Mana – “an impersonal force of supernatural origin, found in all objects, persons, and animals and a source of power”  Vocabulary and culture: example 2 (English) o „Hot‟ o „Cool‟ o „nice‟ o „weird‟  Example 3: Love o “Do you love me?” o is it love if you don‟t say that? o Is it possible to be in love without a word for love? o Does the word “love” create love? [not quite]  The history of love o “I love you” – the sta
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